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Full text of "Rural architecture. Being a complete description of farm houses, cottages, and out buildings, comprising wood houses, workshops ... &c ... Also, the best method of conducting water into cattle yards and houses"

3 1822 02507 3933 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFOPNIA 

SAN DIEGO 



UNIVERSIT OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO 




3 1822 02507 3933 



Social Sciences & Humanities Library 

University of California, San Diego 
P,e a soNce: This item is subiecno rec* 

Date Due 



UCSD Lib. 



Cl 39 (5/97) 






. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE, 

BEING A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION 

OF 

FARM HOUSES, COTTAGES, 

AND 

OUT BUILDINGS, 

COMPRISING 

WOOD HOUSES, WORKSHOPS. TOOL HOUSES, CARRIAGE AND WAGON 

HOUSES, STABLES, SMOKE AND ASH HOUSES, ICE HOUSES, 

APIARY OR BEE HOUSE, POULTRY HOUSES, RAB- 

BIXRY, DOVECOTE, PIGGERY, BARNS AND 

SHEDS FOR CATTLE, &c., &c., &a. 

TOGETHER WITH 

LAWNS, PLEASURE GROUNDS AND PARKS ; THE FLOWER, FRUIT ANB 

VEGETABLE GARDEN. ALSO, USEFUL AND ORNAMENTAL 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS FOR THE COUNTRY 

RESIDENT, fcC., tC., fcC. 

ALSO, 

THE BEST METHOD OF 

CONDUCTING WATER INTO CATTLE YARDS AND HOUSES. 



BY LEWIS F. ULLEN. 

V^*-*"" 
BEAUTIFULLY ILLU ST. BATED. 



NEW YORK: 
A . O . MOORE, 

(LATE O. M. BAXTON A CO..) 

AGRICULTURAL BOOK PUBLISHER, 
140 FULTON STREET. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852. 
BY LEWIS F. ALLEN, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for tiie 
Southern District of New York. 



Stereotyped by 

JEWKTT, THOMAS AMI OO. 

Buflklo. N. Y. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The writer of these pages ought, perhaps, to apologize for 
attempting a work on a subject, of which he is not a profes- 
sional master, either in design or execution. In the science 
of Farm buildings he claims no better knowledge than a long 
practical observation has given him. The thoughts herein 
submitted for the consideration of those interested in the 
subject of Farm buildings are the result of that observation, 
added 'to his experience in the use of such buildings, and a 
conviction of the inconveniences attending many of those 
already planned and erected. 

Nor is it intended, in the production of this work, to niter- 
fere with the labors of the professional builder. To such 
builder all who may be disposed to adopt any model or 
suggestion here presented, are referred, for the various details, 
hi their specifications, and estimates, that may be required; 
presuming that the designs and descriptions of this work will 
be sufficient for the guidance of any master builder, in their 
erection and completion. 



iV ADVERTISEMENT. 

But for the solicitation of those who believe that the 
undersigned could offer some improvements in the construction 
of Farm buildings for the benefit of our landholders and 
practical farmers, these pages would probably never have 
appeared. They are offered in the hope that they may be 
useful in assisting to form the taste, and add to the comfort of 
those who are the main instruments in embellishing the face 
of our country in its most pleasing and agreeable features 

the American Farmer. 

LEWIS F. ALLEN. 
BLACK ROCK, N. Y. 1851. 



NOTE. For throwing the Designs embraced in these pages 
into their present artistic form, the writer is indebted to Messrs. 
Otis <fe Brown, architects, of Buffalo, to whose skill and experi- 
ence he takes a pleasure in recommending such as may wish 
instruction hi the plans, drawings, specifications, or estimates 
relating to either of the designs here submitted, or for others 
of any kind that may be adapted to their purposes. 

L. F. A. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFATORY, ................................................ 9 

INTRODUCTORY, .............................................. 13 

General Suggestions, ........................................ 19 

Style of Building Miscellaneous, ............................ 23 

Position of Farm Houses, .................................... 29 

Home Embellishments, ...................................... 32 

Material for Farm Buildings, .................................. 37 

Outside Color of Houses, ................................ ----- 42 

A Short Chapter on Taste, ................................... 48 

The Construction of Cellars, .................................. 54 

Ventilation of Houses, ....................................... 56 

Interior Accommodation of Houses, ............... . ........... 65 

Chimney Tops, ............................................. 68 

Preliminary to our Designs, .................................. 69 

DESIGN I. A Farm House, ................................... 72 

Interior Arrangement, ................................. 75 

Ground Plan, ......................................... 76 

Chamber Plan, ........................................ 77 

Miscellaneous, ........................................ 80 

As a Tenant House, ................................... 81 

DESIGN II. Description, ..................................... 84 

Ground and Chamber Plans, ............................ 89 

Interior Arrangement, .................................. 90 

Miscellaneous Details, .................................. 95 

DESIGN III. Description, .................................... 101 

Ground and Chamber Plans, ............................ 105 

Interior Arrangement, .................................. 106 

Miscellaneous, ........................................ Ill 



TI CONTENTS. , 

Page 

DESIGN IV. Description, 114 

Interior Arrangement, 118 

Ground Plan, 119 

Chamber Plan, 120 

Surrounding Plantations, Shrubbery, Walks, <fec. 125 

Tree Planting in the Highway, 129 

DESIGN V. Description, 133 

Interior Arrangement, 135 

Ground Plan, 136 

Chamber Plan, 142 

Construction, Cost of Building, <fcc., 147 

Grounds, Plantations, and Surroundings, 149 

DKSIGN VI. A Southern, or Plantation House, 154 

Interior Arrangement, 159 

Chamber Plan, 162 

Carriage House, 163 

Miscellaneous, 163 

Lawn and Park Surroundings, 166 

An Ancient New England Family, 168 

An American Homestead of the Last Century, 169 

Estimate of Cost of Design VI, 172 

DESIGN VII. A Plantation House, 175 

Interior Arrangement, 176 

Ground Plan, 177 

Chamber Plan, 178 

MISCELLANEOUS, ; 179 

Lawns, Grounds, Parks, and Woods, 181 

The Forest Trees of America, 183 

Influence of Trees and Forests on the Character of men, 184 

Hillhouse and Walter Scott as Tree Planters, 187 

DoctorJohnson.no Rural Taste, 188 

Fruit Garden Orchard, 194 

How to lay out a Kitchen Garden, 197 

Flowers, 202 

Wild Flowers of America, 203 

Succession of Home Flowers, 206 

FARM COTTAGES, 208 

DESIOX I, and Ground Plan, 213 

Interior Arrangement 214 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page. 

DESIGN II, and Ground Plan, 216 

Interior Arrangement, 216 

DESIGN III, and Ground Plan, 220 

Interior Arrangement, 220 

DESIGN IV, and Ground Plan, 226 

Interior Arrangement, 229 

Cottage Outside Decoration, 231 

Cottages on the Skirts of Estates, 233 

House and Cottage Furniture, 235 

APIARY, OR BEE HOUSE, 246 

View of Apiary and Ground Plan, and description, 249 

Mode of Taking the Honey, 252 

AN ICE HOUSE, 258 

Elevation and Ground Plan, 260 

AN ASH HOUSE AND SMOKE HOUSE, 264 

Elevation and Ground Plan, 265 

THE POULTRY HOUSE, 267 

Elevation and Ground Plan, 269 

Interior Arrangement, 271 

THE DOVECOTE, 275 

Different Varieties of Pigeons, 278 

A PIGGERY, 279 

Elevation and Ground Plan, 281 

Interior Arrangement, 282 

Construction of Piggery Cost, 283 

FARM BARNS, 286 

DESIGN I. Description, 291 

Interior Arrangement, and Main Floor Plan, 293 

Underground Plan, and Yard, 295 

DESIGN II. Description, 300 

Interior Arrangement, 303 

Floor Plan, 304 

BARN ATTACHMENTS, 308 

RABBITS, 311 

Mr. Rotch's Description of his Rabbits, 313 

Rabbits and Hutch, 315 

Dutch, and English Rabbits, 318 

Mode of Feeding, 319 

Mr. Rodman's Rabbitry, Elevation, and Floor Plan, 322 



rrii CONTENTS. 

Psg. 

Explanations, 323 

Loft or Garret, Explanation, 324 

Cellar plan, Explanation, 325 

Front and Back of Hutches, and Explanation, 326 

DAIRY BUILDINGS, 330 

Cheese Dairy House, 330 

Elevation of Dairy House and Ground Plan, 331 

Interior Arrangement, 333 

The Butter Dairy, 335 

THE WATER RAM, 237 

Figure and Description, 338 

GRANARY Rat-proof, 343 

IMPROVKD DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 345 

Remarks 353 

WATERFOWLS, 358 

The African Goose, 358 

China Goose, 359 

Bremen Goose, 360 

A WORD ABOUT DOGS, 362 

Smooth Terrier, 365 

Shepherd Dog, 369 

FISH-PONDS, 372 



PEEFATOEY. 



THIS work owes its appearance to the absence of any cheap 
and popular book on the subject of Rural Architecture, exclu- 
sively intended for the farming or agricultural interest of the 
United States. Why it is, that nothing of the kind has been 
heretofore attempted for the chief benefit of so large and im- 
portant a class of our community as our farmers comprise, is 
not easy to say, unless it be that they themselves have indicated 
but little wish for instruction in a branch of domestic economy 
which is, in reality, one of great importance, not only to their 
domestic enjoyment, but their pecuniary welfare. It is, too, 
perhaps, among the category of neglects, and in the lack of 
fidelity to their own interests which pervades the agricultural 
community of this country, beyond those of any other profes- 
sion for we insist that agriculture, in its true and extended 
sense, is as much a profession as any other pursuit whatever. 
To the reality of such neglects they have but of late awaked, 

and indeed are now far too slowly wheeling into line for more 
1* 



A PREFATORY. 

active progress in the knowledge pertaining to their own 
advancement As an accessory to their labors in such ad- 
vancement, the present work is intended. 

It is an opinion far too prevalent among those engaged in 
the more active occupations of our people, fortified indeed in 
such opinion, by the too frequent example of the farmer him- 
self that everything connected with agriculture and agricul- 
tural life is of a rustic and uncouth character; that it is a 
profession in which ignorance, as they understand the term, is 
entirely consistent, and one with which no aspirations of a high 
or an elevated character should, or at least need be connected. 
It is a reflection upon the integrity of the great agricultural 
interest of the country, that any such opinion should prevail ; 
and discreditable to that interest, that its condition or example 
should for a moment justify, or even tolerate it 

Without going into any extended course of remark, we 
shall find ample reason for the indifference which has prevailed 
among our rural population, on the subject of their own do- 
mestic architecture, in the absence of familiar and practical 
works on the subject, by such as have given any considerable 
degree of thought to it; and, what little thought has been 
devoted to this branch of building, has been incidentally rather 
than directly thrown off by those professionally engaged in the 
finer architectural studies appertaining to luxury and taste, 
instead of the every-day wants of a strictly agricultural popula- 
tion, and, of consequence, understanding but imperfectly the 
wants and conveniences of the farm house in its connection with 
the every-day labors and necessities of farm life. 



I'liLl-'ATOIiY. XI 

It is not intended, in these remarks, to depreciate the efforts 
of those who have attempted to instruct our farmers in this 
interesting branch of agricultural economy. We owe them a 
debt of gratitude for what they have accomplished in the intro- 
duction of their designs to our notice ; and when it is remarked 
that they are insufficient for the purposes intended, it may be 
also taken as an admission of our own neglect, that we have so 
far disregarded the subject ourselves, as to force upon others 
" the duty of essaying to instruct us in a work of which we our- 
selves should long ago have been the masters. 

Why should a farmer, because he is a farmer, only occupy 
an uncouth, outlandish house, any more than a professional man, 
a merchant, or a mechanic ? Is it because he himself is so 
uncouth and outlandish in his thoughts and manners, that he 
deserves no better ? Is it because his occupation is degrading, 
his intellect ignorant, his position in life low, and his associa- 
tions debasing? Surely not Yet, in many of the plans and 
designs got up for his accommodation, in the books and publi- 
cations of the day, all due convenience, to say nothing of the 
respectability or the elegance of domestic life, is as entirely 
disregarded as if such qualities had no connection with the 
farmer or his occupation. We hold, that although many of 
the practical operations of the farm may be rough, laborious, 
and untidy, yet they are not, and need not be inconsistent with 
the knowledge and practice of neatness, order, and even ele- 
gance and refinement within doors; and, that the due accom- 
modation of the various things appertaining to farm stock, farm 
labor, and farm life, should have a tendency to elevate the social 



\li PREFATORY. 

position, the associations, thoughts, and entire condition of the 
farmer. As the man himself no matter what his occupa- 
tion be lodged and fed, so influenced, in a degree, will be 
his practice hi the daily duties of his life. A squalid, miserable- 
tenement, with which they who inhabit it are content, can lead 
to no elevation of character, no improvement in condition, either 
social or moral, of its occupants. But, the family comfortably 
and tidily, although humbly provided in their habitation Mid 
domestic arrangements, have usually a corresponding character 
in their personal relations. A log cabin, even, and I speak 
of this primitive American structure with profound affection 
and regard, as the shelter from which we have achieved the 
most of our prodigious and rapid agricultural conquests, may 
be so constructed as to speak an air of neatness, intelligence, 
and even refinement in those who inhabit it. 

Admitting, then, without further argument, that well con- 
ditioned household accommodations are as important to the 
farmer, even to the indulgence of luxury itself, when it can be 
afforded, as for those who occupy other and more active pur- 
suits, it is quite important that he be equally well instructed 
in the art of planning and arranging these accommodations, 
and in designing, also, the various other structures which are 
necessary to his wants in their fullest extent As a question 
of economy, both in saving and accumulating, good and suffi- 
cient buildings are of the first consequence, in a pecuniary 
light, and when to this are added other considerations touching 
our social enjoyment, our advancement in temporal condition, 
our associations, our position and influence in life, and, not least, 



PKEFATOKY. X1U 

the decided item of national good taste which the introduction 
of good buildings throughout our extended agricultural country 
will give, we find abundant cause for effort in improvement 

It is not intended in our remarks to convey the impression 
that we Americans, as a people, are destitute of comfortable, 
and, in many cases, quite convenient household and farm ar- 
rangements. Numerous farmeries in every* section of the 
United States, particularly in the older ones, demonstrate most 
fully, that where our farmers have taken the trovble to think 
on the subject^ their ingenuity has been equal, in the items of 
convenient and economical arrangement of their dwellings and 
out-buildings, to their demands. But, we are forced to say, 
that such buildings have been executed, in most cases, with 
great neglect of architectural system, taste, or effect; and, in 
many instances, to the utter violation of all propriety in appear- 
ance, or character, as appertaining to the uses for which they 
are applied. 

The character of the farm should be carried out so as to 
express itself in everything which it contains. All should bear 
a consistent relation with each other. The farmer himself is a 
plain man. His family are plain people, although none the less 
worthy, useful, or exalted, on that account His structures, of 
every kind, should be plain, also, yet substantial, where sub- 
stance is required. All these detract nothing from his respect- 
ability or his influence in the neighborhood, the town, the 
county, or the state. A farmer has quite as much business 
in the field, or about his ordinary occupations, with ragged gar- 
ments, out at elbows and a crownless hat, as he has to occupy 



XIV FREFATOKY. 

a leaky, wind-broken, and dilapidated house. Neither is he 
any nearer the mark, with a ruffled shirt, a fancy dress, or 
gloved hands, when following his plough behind a pair of fancy 
horses, than in living in a finical, pretending house, such as we 
see stuck up in conspicueus places in many parts of the country. 
All these are out of place in each extreme, and the one is as 
absurd, so far as true propriety is concerned, as the other. A 
itness of things, or a correspondence of one thing with another, 
should always be preserved upon the farm, as elsewhere ; and 
there is not a single reason why propriety and good keeping 
should not as well distinguish it Nor is there acy good cause 
why the fanner himself should not be a man of taste, in the 
arrangement and architecture of every building on his place, as 
well as other men. It is only necessary that he devote a little 
time to study, hi order to give his mind a right direction in all 
that appertains to this department. Or, if he prefer to employ 
the ingenuity of others to do his planning, which, by the way, 
is, in most cases, the more natural and better course, he cer- 
tainly should possess sufficient judgment to see that such plans 
be correct and will answer his purposes. 

The plans and directions submitted in this work are intended 
to be of the most practical kind ; plain, substantial, and appli- 
cable, throughout, to the purposes intended, and such as are 
within the reach each in their kind of every farmer m our 
country. These plans are chiefly original; that is, they are 
not copied from any in the books, or from any structures with 
which the writer is familiar. Yet they will doubtless, on 
examination, be found in several cases to resemble buildings, 



PBEFATOltY. XV 

both in outward appearance and interior arrangement, with 
which numerous readers may be acquainted. The object, in 
addition to our own designs, has been to apply practical hints, 
gathered from other structures in use, which have seemed 
appropriate for a work of the limited extent here offered, and 
that may serve to improve the taste of all such as, in building 
useful structures, desire to embellish their farms and estates in 
an agreeable style of home architecture, at once pleasant to the 
eye, and convenient in their arrangement 



INTRODUCTORY. 



THE lover of country life who looks upon rural objects 
in the true spirit, and, for the first time surveys the 
cultivated portions of the United States, will be struck 
with the incongruous appearance and style of our farm 
houses and their contiguous buildings ; and, although, 
on examination, he will find many, that in their interior 
accommodation, and perhaps relative arrangement to 
each other, are tolerably suited to the business and 
convenience of the husbandman, still, the feeling will 
prevail that there is an absence of method, congruity, 
and correct taste in the architectural structure of his 
buildings generally, by the American farmer. 

We may, in truth, be said to have no architecture at 
all, as exhibited in our agricultural districts, so far as 
any correct system, or plan is concerned, as the better 
taste in building, which a few years past has introduced 
among us, has been chiefly confined to our cities and 
towns of rapid growth. Even in the comparatively 
few buildings in the modern style to be seen in our 
funning districts, from the various requirements of 



INTRODUCTORY. 



those buildings being partially unknown to the ar- 
chitect and builder, who had their planning and 
upon whom, owing to their own inexperience in such 
matters, their employers have relied a majority of 
Buch dwellings have turned out, if not absolute fail- 
ures, certainly not what the necessities of the farmer 
has demanded. Consequently, save in the mere item 
of outward appearance and that, not always the 
farmer and cottager have gained nothing, owing to the 
absurdity in style or arrangement, and want of fitness 
to circumstances adopted for the occasion. 

We have stated that our prevailing rural architecture 
is discordant in appearance; it may be added, that it is 
also uncouth, out of keeping with correct rules, and, 
ofttimes offensive to the eye of any lover of rural har- 
mony. Why it is so, no matter, beyond the apology 
already given that of an absence of cultivation, and 
thought upon the subject. It may be asked, of what 
consequence is it that the farmer or small property- 
holder should conform to given rules, or mode, in the 
style and arrangement of his dwelling, or out-buildings, 
so that they be reasonably convenient, and answer his 
purposes ? For the same reason that he requires sym- 
metry, excellence of form or style, in his horses, his 
cattle, or other farm stock, household furniture, or per- 
sonal dress. It is an arrangement of artificial objects, 
in harmony with natural objects ; a cultivation of the 
sympathies which every rational being should have, 
more or less, with true taste; that costs little or nothing 
in the attainment, and, when attained, is a source of 
gratification through life. Every human being ia 



mTBODUCTOEY. 15 

hound, under ordinary circumstances, to leave the 
world somewhat better, so far as his own acts or exer- 
tions are concerned, than he found it, in the exercise 
of such faculties as have been given him. Such duty, 
among thinking men, is conceded, so far as the moral 
world is concerned: and why not in the artificial? 
So far as the influence for good goes, in all practi- 
cal use, from the building of a temple, to the knocking 
together of a pig-stye a labor of years, or the work 
of a day the exercise of a correct taste is important, 
in a degree. 

In the available physical features of a country, no 
land upon earth exceeds North America. From scen- 
ery the most sublime, through the several gradations 
of magnificence and grandeur, down to the simply pic- 
turesque and beautiful, in all variety and shade; in 
compass vast, or in area limited, we have an endless 
variety, and, with a pouring out of God's harmonies in 
the creation, without a parallel, inviting every intelli- 
gent mind to study their features and character, in 
adapting them to his own uses, and, in so doing, to 
even embellish if such a thing be possible such 
exquisite objects with his own most ingenious handi- 
work. Indeed, it is a profanation to do otherwise ; and 
when so to improve them requires no extraordinary 
application of skill, or any extravagant outlay in ex- 
pense, not to plan and to build in conformity with good 
taste, is an absolute barbarism, inexcusable in a land 
.ike ours, and among a population claiming the intelli- 
gence we do, or making but a share of the general 
progress which we exhibit. 



16 INTRODUCTORY. 

It is the idea of some, that a house or building which 
the farmer or planter occupies, should, in shape, style, 
and character, be like some of the stored-up commodi- 
ties of his farm or plantation. We cannot subscribe to 
this suggestion. We know of no good reason why the 
walls of a farm house should appear like a hay rick, or . 
its roof like the thatched covering to his wheat stacks, 
because such are the shapes best adapted to preserve 
his crops, any more than the grocer's habitation should 
be made to imitate a tea chest, or the shipping mer- 
chant's a rum puncheon, or cotton bale. We have 
an idea that the farmer, or the planter, according to 
his means and requirements, should be as well housed 
and accommodated, and in as agreeable style, too, as 
any other class of community ; not in like character, in 
all things, to be sure, but in his own proper way and 
manner. Nor do we know why a farm house should 
assume a peculiarly primitive or uncultivated style of 
architecture, from other sensible houses. That it be a 
farm house, is sufficiently apparent from its locality 
upon the farm itself; that its interior arrangement be 
for the convenience of the in-door farm work, and the 
proper accommodation of the farmer's family, should be 
quite as apparent; but, that it should assume an un- 
couth or clownish aspect, is as unnecessary as that the 
fanner himself should be a boor in his manners, or a 
dolt in his intellect. 

The farm, in its proper cultivation, is the foundation 
of all human prosperity, and from it is derived the 
main wealth of the community. From the farm chiefly 
springs that energetic class of men, who replace tno 



INTRODUCTORY. 17 

enervated and physically decaying multitude continual- 
ly thrown off in the waste-weir of our great commercial 
and manufacturing cities and towns, whose population, 
without the infusion and that continually of the 
strong, substantial, and vigorous life blood of the coun- 
try, would soon dwindle into insignificance and decrep- 
itude. Why then should not this first, primitive, health- 
enjoying and life-sustaining class of our people be 
equally accommodated in all that gives to social and 
substantial life, its due development? It is absurd to 
deny them by others, or that they deny themselves, 
the least of such advantages, or that any mark of caste 
oe attempted to separate them from any other class or 
profession of equal wealth, means, or necessity. It is 
quite as well to say that the fanner should worship on 
the Sabbath in a meeting-house, built after the fashion 
of his barn, or that his district school house should look 
like a stable, as that his dwelling should not exhibit all 
that cheerfulness and respectability in form and feature 
which belongs to the houses of any class of our popula- 
tion whatever. Not that the farm house should be like 
the town or the village house, in character, style, or 
architecture, but that it should, in its own proper char- 
acter, express all the comfort, repose, and quietude 
which belong to the retired and thoughtful occupation 
of him who inhabits it. Sheltered in its own secluded, 
yet independent domain,' with a cheerful, intelligent 
exterior, it should exhibit all the pains-taking in home 
embellishment and rural decoration that becomes its 
position, and which would make it an object of attrac- 
tion and regard. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. 

IN ascertaining what is desirable to the convenien- 
ces, or the necessities in our household arrangement, it 
may be not unprofitable to look about us, and consider 
somewhat, the existing condition of the structures too 
many of us now inhabit, and which, in the light of true 
fitness for the objects designed, are inconvenient, ab- 
surd, and out of all harmony of purpose ; yet, under 
the guidance of a better skill, and a moderate outlay, 
might be well adapted, in most cases, to our conven- 
ience and comfort, and quite well, to a reasonable 
standard of taste in architectural appearance. 

At the threshold not of the house, but of this 
treatise it may be well to remark that it is not here 
assumed that there has been neither skill, ingenuity, 
nor occasional good taste exhibited, for many genera- 
tions back, in the United States, in the construction of 
farm and country houses. On the contrary, there are 
found in the older states many farm and country houses 



20 KVRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

that are almost models, in their way, for convenience 
in the main purposes required of structures of their 
kind, and such as can hardly be altered for the better. 
Such, however, form the exception, not the rule; yet 
instead of standing as objects for imitation, they have 
been ruled out as antiquated, and unfit for modern 
builders to consult, who have in the introduction of 
some real improvements, also left out, or discarded 
much that is valuable, and, where true comfort is con- 
cerned, indispensable to perfect housekeeping. Altera- 
tion is not always improvement, and in the rage for 
innovation of all kinds, among much that is valuable, a 
great deal in house-building has been introduced that 
is absolutely pernicious. Take, for instance, some of 
our ancient-looking country houses of the last cen- 
tury, which, in America, we call old. See their 
ample dimensions; their heavy, massive walls; their 
low, comfortable ceilings; their high gables; sharp 
roofs ; deep porches, and spreading eaves, and contrast 
them with the ambitious, tall, proportionless, and card- 
sided things of a modern date, and draw the comparison 
in true comfort, which the ancient mansion really 
affords, by the side of the other. Bating its huge 
chimneys, its wide fire-places, its heavy beams drop- 
ping below the ceiling overhead, and the lack of some 
modern conveniences, which, to be added, would give 
all that is desired, and every man possessed of a proper 
judgment will concede the superiority to the house of 
the last century. 

That American house-building of the last fifty years 
is out of joint, requires no better proof than that the 



EUKAL AROHITBCTDKE. 21 

main improvements which have been applied to our 
rural architecture, are in the English style of farm and 
country houses of two or three centuries ago ; so, in 
that particular, we acknowledge the better taste and 
judgment of our ancestors. True, modern luxury, and 
in some particulars, modern improvement has made 
obsolete, if not absurd, many things considered indis- 
pensable in a ruder age. The wide, rambling halls and 
rooms ; the huge, deep fire-places in the chimneys ; the 
proximity of out-buildings, and the contiguity of stables, 
ricks, and cattle-yards all these are wisely contracted, 
dispensed with, or thrown off to a proper distance ; but 
instead of such style being abandoned altogether, as has 
too often been done, the house itself might better have 
been partially reformed, and the interior arrangement 
adapted to modern convenience. Such changes have 
in some instances been made ; and when so, how often 
does the old mansion, with outward features in good 
preservation, outspeak, in all the expression of home- 
bred comforts, the flashy, gimcrack neighbor, which in 
its plenitude of modern pretension looks so flauntingly 
down upon it ! 

We cannot, in the United States, consistently adopt 
the domestic architecture of any other country, through- 
out, to our use. We are different in our institutions, 
our habits, our agriculture, our climates. Utility is our 
chief object, and coupled with that, the indulgence of 
an agreeable taste may be permitted to every one who 
creates a home for himself, or founds one for his family. 
The frequent changes of estates incident to our laws, 
and the many inducements held out to our people to 



22 EUKAL AKCHTrECimBE. 

change their locality or residence, in the hope of better 
ing their condition, is a strong hindrance to the adop- 
tion of a universally correct system in the construction of 
our buildings ; deadening, as the effect of such changes, 
that home feeling which should be a prominent trait of 
agricultural character. An attachment to locality is 
not a conspicuous trait of American character; and if 
there be a people on earth boasting a high civilization 
and intelligence, who are at the same time a roving 
race, the Americans are that people ; and we acknowl- 
edge it a blemiah in our domestic and social con 
stitution. 

Such remark is not dropped invidiously, but as a 
reason why we have thus far madeo little progress in 
the arts of home embellishment, and in clustering about 
our habitations those innumerable attractions which 
win us to them sufficiently to repel the temptation so 
often presented to our enterprise, our ambition, or love 
of gain and these not always successful in seeking 
other and distant places of abode. If, then, this tend- 
ency to change a want of attachment to any one 
spot is a reason why we have been so indifferent to 
domestic architecture; and if the study and practice of 
a better system of building tends to cultivate a homo 
feeling, why should it not be encouraged ? Home at- 
tachment is a virtue. Therefore let that virtue be cher- 
ished. And if any one study tend to exalt our taste, 
and promote our enjoyment, let us cultivate that study 
to the highest extent within our 






RURAL ABOHITBOTTrRE. 



STYLE OF BUILDING. MISCELLANEOUS 



Diversified as are the features of our country in cli- 
mate, soil, surface, and position, no one style of rural 
architecture is properly adapted to the whole ; and it is 
a gratifying incident to the indulgence in a variety of 
taste, that we possess the opportunity which we desire in 
its display to almost any extent, in mode and effect. 
The Swiss chalet may hang in the mountain pass ; the 
pointed Gothic may shoot up among the evergreens of 
the rugged hill-side ; the Italian roof, with its overlook 
ing campanile, may command the wooded slope or the 
open plain; or the quaint and shadowy style of the old 
English mansion, embosomed in its vines and shrub- 
bery, may nestle in the quiet, shaded valley, all suited 
to their respective positions, and each in harmony with 
the natural features by which it is surrounded. Nor 
does the effect which such structures give to the land- 
scape in an ornamental point of view, require that they 
be more imposing in character than the necessities of 
the occasion may demand. True economy demands a 
structure sufficiently spacious to accommodate its oc- 
cupants in the best manner, so far as convenience and 

> 



24 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

comfort are concerned in a dwelling; and its conform- 
ity to just rules in architecture need not be additionally 
expensive or troublesome. He who builds at all, if it 
be anything beyond a rude or temporary shelter, may 
as easily and cheaply build in accordance with correct 
rules of architecture, as against such rules ; and it no 
more requires an extravagance in cost or a wasteful 
occupation of room to produce a given effect in a house 
suited to humble means, than in one of profuse accom- 
modation. Magnificence, or the attempt at magnifi- 
cence in building, is the great fault with Americans 
who aim to build out of the common line; and the 
consequence of such attempt is too often a failure, ap- 
parent, always, at a glance, and of course a perfect 
condemnation in itself of the judgment as well as taste 
of him who undertakes it. 

Holding our tenures as we do, with no privilege of 
entail to our posterity, an eye to his own interest, or to 
that of his family who is to succeed to his estate, should 
admonish the builder of a house to the adoption of a 
plan which will, in case of the sale of the estate, 
involve no serious loss. He should build such a house 
as will be no detriment, in its expense, to the selling 
value of the land on which it stands, and always fitted 
for the spot it occupies. Hence, an imitation of the 
high, extended, castellated mansions of England, or the 
Continent, although in miniature, are altogether un- 
suited.to the American farmer or planter, whose lands, 
instead of increasing in his family, are continually sub- 
ject to division, or to sale in mass, on his own demise; 
and when the estate is encumbered with unnecessarily 



KUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 25 

large and expensive buildings, they become an abso- 
lute drawback to its value in either event. An expen- 
sive house requires a corresponding expense to maintain 
it, otherwise its effect is lost, and many a worthy owner 
of a costly mansion has been driven to sell and aban- 
don his estate altogether, from his unwillingness or 
inability to support " the establishment " which it en- 
tailed; when, if the dwelling were only such as the 
estate required and could reasonably maintain, a con- 
tented and happy home would have remained to him- 
self and family. It behooves, therefore, the American 
builder to examine well his premises, to ascertain the 
actual requirements of his farm or plantation, in con 
venieuce and accommodation, and build only to such 
extent, and at such cost as shall not impoverish his 
means, nor cause him future disquietude. 

Another difficulty with us is, that we oftener build 
to gratify the eyes of the public than our own, and fit 
up our dwellings to accommodate " company" or visit- 
ors, rather than our own families ; and in the indul- 
gence of this false notion, subject ourselves to perpetual 
inconvenience for the gratification of occasional hospi- 
tality or ostentation. This is all wrong. A house 
should be planned and constructed for the use of the 
household, with incidental accommodation for our im- 
mediate friends or guests which can always be done 
without sacrifice to the comfort or convenience of the 
regular inmates. In this remark, a stinted and parsi- 
monious spirit is not suggested. A liberal appropria- 
tion of rooms in every department; a spare chamber 
or two, or an additional room on the ground floor, 



26 KTJBAL 

looking to a possible increase of family, and the indul- 
gence of an easy hospitality, should always govern the 
resident of the country in erecting his dwelling. The 
enjoyments of society and the intercourse of friends, 
sharing for the time, our own table and fireside, is a 
crowning pleasure of country life ; and all this may be 
done without extraordinary expense, in a wise con- 
struction of the dwelling. 

The farm house too, should comport in character and 
area with the extent and capacity of the farm itself, 
and the main design for which it is erected. To the 
farmer proper he who lives from the income which 
the farm produces it is important to know the extent 
of accommodation required for the economical manage- 
ment of his estate, and then to build in accordance with 
it, as well as to suit his own position in life, and the 
station which he and his family hold in society. The 
owner of a hundred acre farm, living upon the income 
he receives from it, will require less house room than 
he who tills equally well his farm of three, six, or ten 
hundred acres. Yet the numbers in their respective 
families, the relative position of each in society, or 
their taste for social intercourse may demand a larger 
or smaller household arrangement, regardless of the 
size of their estates ; still, the dwellings on each should 
bear, in extent and expense, a consistent relation to 
the land itself, and the means of its owner. For in- 
stance : a farm of one hundred acres may safely and 
economically erect and maintain a house costing eight 
hundred to two thousand dollars, while one of five hun- 
dred to a thousand acres may range in an expenditure 



M BUBAL ABCHTTECTIJBE. 27 

of twenty-five hundred to five thousand dollars in its 
dwelling, and all be consistent with a proper economy 
in farm management. 

Let it be understood, that the above sums are named 
as simply comporting with a financial view of the sub- 
ject, and such as the economical management of the 
estate may warrant. To one who has no regard to 
such consideration, this rule of expenditure will not 
apply. He may invest any amount he so chooses in 
building beyond, if he only be content to pocket the 
loss which he can never expect to be returned in an 
increased value to the property, over and above the 
price of cheaper buildings. On the other hand, he 
would do well to consider that a farm is frequently 
worth less to an ordinary purchaser, with an extrava- 
gant house upon it, than with an economical one, and 
in many cases will bring even less in market, in pro- 
portion as the dwelling is expensive, fancy purchas- 
ers are few, and fastidious, while he who buys only for 
a home and an occupation, is governed solely by the 
profitable returns the estate will afford upon the capital 
invested. 

There is again a grand error which many fall into in 
building, looking as they do only at the extent of wood 
and timber, or stone and mortar in the structure, and 
paying no attention to the surroundings, which in most 
cases contribute more to the effect of the establishment 
than the structure itself, and which, if uncultivated or 
neglected, any amount of expenditure in building will 
fail to give that completeness and perfection of charac- 
ter which every homestead should command. Thus 



RURAL ARCHITECT-TEE. 
** -** 

the tawdry erections in imitation of a cast-oil' feudalism 
in Europe, or a copying of the massive piles of more 
recent date abroad, although in miniature, both in 
extent and cost, is the sheerest affectation, in which no 
sensible man should ever indulge. It is out of all 
keeping, or propriety with other things, as we in this 
country have them, and the indulgence of all such 
fancies is sooner or later regretted. Substance, conve- 
nience, purpose, harmony all, perhaps, better summed 
up in the term EXPRESSION these are the objects which 
should govern the construction of our dwellings and 
out-buildings, and in their observance we can hardly 
err in the acquisition of what will promote the highest 
enjoyment which a dwelling can bestow. 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 29 



POSITION". 



The site of a dwelling should be an important study 
with every country builder; for on this depends much 
of its utility, and in addition to that, a large share of 
the enjoyment which its occupation will afford. Cus- 
tom, in many parts of the United States, in the location 
of the farm buildings, gives advantages which are 
denied in others. In the south, and in the slave states 
generally, the planter builds, regardless of roads, on 
the most convenient site his plantation presents ; the 
farmer of German descent, in Pennsylvania and some 
other states, does the same : while the Yankee, be he 
settled where he will, either in the east, north, or west, 
inexorably huddles himself immediately upon the high- 
way, whether his possessions embrace both sides of it 
or not, disregarding the facilities of access to his fields, 
the convenience of tilling his crops, or the character of 
the ground which his buildings may occupy, seeming 
to have no other object than proximity to the road as 
if his chief business was upon that, instead of its being 
simply a convenience to his occupation. To the last, 
but little choice is left ; and so long as a close connec- 
tion with the thoroughfare is to control, he is obliged 
2* 



30 BUBAL AECHITECTUEE. 

to conform to accident in what should be a matter of 
deliberate choice and judgment. Still, there are right 
and wrong positions for a house, which it is necessary 
to discuss, regardless of conventional rules, and they 
should be considered in the light of propriety alone. 

A fitness to the purposes for which the dwelling is 
constructed should, unquestionably, be the governing 
point in determining its position. The site should be 
dry, and slightly declining, if possible, on every side ; 
but if the surface be level, or where water occasionally 
flows from contiguous grounds, or on a soil naturally 
damp, it should be thoroughly drained of all super- 
fluous moisture. That is indispensable to the preser- 
vation of the house itself, and the health of its inmates. 
The house should so stand as to present an agreeable 
aspect from the main points at which it is seen, or the 
thoroughfares by which it is approached. It, should 
be so arranged as to afford protection from wind and 
storm, to that part most usually occupied, as well as be 
easy of access to the out-buildings appended to it. It 
should have an unmistakable front, sides, and rear; 
and the uses to which its various parts are applied, 
should distinctly appear in its outward character. It 
should combine all the advantages of soil, cultivation, 
water, shade, and shelter, which the most liberal grati- 
fication, consistent with the circumstances of the owner, 
may demand. If a site on the estate command a pros- 
pect of singular beauty, other things equal, the dwel- 
ling should embrace it ; if the luxury of a stream, or a 
, sheet of water in repose, present itself, it should, if 
possible, be enjoyed; if the shade and protection of a 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 31 

grove be near, its benefits should be included ; in fine, 
any object in itself desirable, and not embarrassing to 
the main purposes of the dwelling and its appendages, 
should be turned to the best account, and appropriated 
in such manner as to combine all that is desirable both 
in beauty and effect, as well as in utility, to make up 
a perfect whole in the family residence. 

Attached to the building site should be considered 
the quality of the soil, as affording cultivation and 
growth to shrubbery and trees, at once the ornament 
most effective to all domestic buildings, grateful to the 
eye always, as objects of admiration and beauty 
delightful in the repose they offer in hours of las- 
situde or weariness ; and to them, that indispensable 
feature in a perfect arrangement, the garden, both fruit 
and vegetable, should be added. Happily for the 
American, our soils are so universally adapted to the 
growth of vegetation in all its varieties, that hardly a 
farm of considerable size can be found which does not 
afford tolerable facilities for the exercise of all the taste 
which one may indulge in the cultivation of the garden 
as well as in the planting and growth of trees and 
shrubbery; and a due appropriation of these to an 
agreeable residence is equal in importance to the stylo 
and arrangement of the house itself. 

The site selected for the dwelling, and the character 
of the scenery and objects immediately surrounding it, 
should have a controlling influence upon the style in 
which the house is to be constructed. A fitness and 
harmony in all these is indispensable to both express- 
ion and effect. And in their determination, a single 



32 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

object should not control, but the entire picture, as 
completed, should be embraced in the view ; and that 
style of building constituting the most agreeable whole, 
as filling the eye with the most grateful sensations, 
should be the one selected with which to fill up and 
complete the design. 



HOME EMBELLISHMENTS. 

A discussion of the objects by way of embellishment, 
which may be required to give character and effect to 
a country residence, would embrace a range too wide, 
in all its parts, for a simply practical treatise like this ; 
and general hints on the subject are all indeed, that 
will be required, as no specific rules or directions can 
be given which would be applicable, indiscriminately, 
to guide tiie builder in the execution of his work. A 
dwelling house, no matter what the style, standing 
alone, either on hill or plain, apart from other objects, 
would hardly be an attractive sight. As a mere rep- 
resentation of a particular style of architecture, or as a 
model of imitation, it might excite our admiration, but 
it would not be an object on which the eye and the 
imagination could repose with satisfaction. It would be 
incomplete unless accompanied by such associates as 
the eye is accustomed to embrace in the full gratifica- 
tion of the sensations to which that organ is the 



KT7RAL ARCHITECTURE. 33 

conductor. But assemble around that dwelling subor- 
dinate structures, trees, and shrubbery properly dis- 
posed, and it becomes an object of exceeding interest 
and pleasure in the contemplation. It is therefore, 
that the particular style or outward arrangement of the 
house is but a part of what should constitute the gen- 
eral effect, and such style is to be consulted only so far 
as it may in itself please the taste, and give benefit or 
utility in the purposes for which it is intended. Still, 
the architectural design should be in harmony with the 
features of the surrounding scenery, and is thus im- 
portant in completing the effect sought, and which 
cannot be accomplished without it. 

A farm with its buildings, or a simple country resi- 
dence with the grounds which enclose it, or a cottage 
with its door-yard and garden, should be finished 
sections of the landscape of which it forms a part, or 
attractive points within it; and of consequence, com- 
plete each within itself, and not dependent upon distant 
accessories to support it an imperium in imperio, in 
classic phrase. A tower, a monument, a steeple, or 
the indistinct outline of a distant town may form a 
striking feature in a pictorial design and the associa- 
tions connected with them, or, the character in which 
they are contemplated may allow them to stand naked 
and unadorned by other objects, and still permit them 
to fill up in perfect harmony the picture. This idea 
will illustrate the importance of embellishment, not 
only in the substitution of trees as necessary append- 
ages to a complete rural establishment, but in the 
erection of all the buildings necessary for occupation 



34 RTTBAL AECHITECTUEE. 

in any manner, in form and position, to give effeci 
from any point of view in which the homestead ma/y 
be seen. General appearance should not be confine-! 
to one quarter alone, but the house and its surround 
ings on every side should show completeness in design 
and harmony in execution ; and although humble, ami 
devoted to the meanest purposes, a portion of these 
erections may be, yet the character of utility or neces 
sity which they maintain, gives them an air of dignity , 
if not of grace. Thus, a house and out-buildingo 
flanked with orchards, or a wood, on which they 
apparently fall back for support, fills the eye at once 
with not only a beautiful group, in themselves com 
bined, but associate the idea of repose, of comfort, 
and abundance indispensable requisites to a perfec 1 
farm residence. They also seem to connect the house 
and out-buildings with the fields beyond, which are oi 
necessity naked of trees, and gradually spread the 
view abroad over the farm until it mingles with, 01 
is lost in the general landscape. 

These remarks may seem too refined, and as out of 
place here, and trenching upon the subject of Land 
scape Gardening, which is not designed to be a part, 
or but an incidental one of the present work, yet they 
are important in connection with the subject under 
discussion. The proper disposition of trees and shrub- 
bery around, or in the vicinity of buildings is far too 
little understood, although tree planting about our 
dwellings is a practice pretty general throughout our 
country. Nothing is more common than to see a man 
build a house, perhaps in most elaborate and expensive 





EUKAL AKCHTTECTURE. , 35 

style, and then plant a row of trees close upon the 
front, which when grown will shut it almost entirely 
out of view; while he leaves the rear as bald and 
unprotected as if it were a barn or a horse-shed as 
if in utter ignorance, as he probably is, that his house 
is more effectively set off by a flanking and back- 
ground of tree and shrubbery, than in front. And this 
is called good taste ! Let us examine it. Trees near 
a dwelling are desirable for shade ; shelter they do not 
afford except in masses, which last is always better 
given to the house itself by a veranda. Immediately 
adjoining, or within touching distance of a house, trees 
create dampness, more or less litter, and frequently 
vermin. They injure the walls and roofs by their 
continual shade and dampness. They exclude the 
rays of the sun, and prevent a free circulation of air. 
Therefore, close to the house, trees are absolutely per- 
nicious, to say nothing of excluding all its architectural 
effect from observation; when, if planted at proper 
distances, they compose its finest ornaments. 

If it be necessary to build in good taste at all, it is 
quite as necessary that such good taste be kept in 
view throughout. A country dwelling should always 
be a conspicuous object in its full character and out- 
line, from one or more prominent points of observation ; 
consequently all plantations of tree or shrubbery in its 
immediate vicinity should be considered as aids to 
show off the house and its appendages, instead of be- 
coming the principal objects of attraction in themselves. 
Their disposition should be such as to create a perfect 
and agreeable whole, when seen in connection with the 



86 RURAL AECHITECTUKE. 

house itself. They should also be so placed as to open 
the surrounding landscape to view in its most attractive 
features, from the various parts of the dwelling. Much 
in the effective disposition of trees around the dwelling 
will thus depend upon the character of the country- 
seen from it, and which should control to a great extent 
their position. A single tree, of grand and stately 
dimensions, will frequently give greater effect than the 
most studied plantations. A ledge of rock, in the 
clefts of which wild vines may nestle, or around which 
a mass of shrubbery may cluster, will add a charm to 
the dwelling which an elaborate cultivation would fail 
to bestow ; and the most negligent apparel of nature 
in a thousand ways may give, a character which we 
might strive in vain to accomplish by our own inven- 
tion. In the efforts to embellish our dwellings or 
grounds, the strong natural objects with which they 
are associated should be consulted, always keeping in 
view an expression of the chief character to which the 
whole is applied. 



RUEAL AECHITEOTTJEE. 87 



MATERIAL FOR FARM BUILDINGS. 



In a country like ours, containing within its soils 
and upon its surface such an abundance and variety of 
building material, the composition of our farm erections 
must depend in most cases upon the ability or the 
choice of the builder himself. 

Stone is the most durable, in the long run the cheap- 
est, and as a consequence, the lest material which can 
be furnished for the walls of a dwelling. With other 
farm buildings circumstances may govern differently ; 
still, in many sections of the United States, even stone 
cannot be obtained, except at an expense and incon- 
venience altogether forbidding its use. Yet it is a 
happy relief that where stone is difficult, or not at all 
to be obtained, the best of clay for bricks, is abundant ; 
and in almost all parts of our country, even where 
building timber is scarce, its transportation is so com- 
paratively light, and the facilities of removing it are 
so cheap, that wood is accessible to every one. Hence 
we may indulge in almost every fitting style of archi- 
tecture and arrangement, to which either kind of these 
materials are best adapted. We shall slightly discuss 
them as applicable to our purposes. 



BUBAL AECHITECTUBE. 

Stone is found either on the surface, or in quarries 
under ground. On the surface they lie chiefly as 
bowlders of less or greater size, usually of hard and 
durable kinds. Large bowlders may be either blasted, 
or split with wedges into sufficiently available shapes 
to lay in walls with mortar ; or if small, they may with 
a little extra labor, be fitted by the aid of good mortar 
into equally substantial wall as the larger masses. In 
quarries they are thrown out, either by blasting or 
splitting in layers, so as to form regular courses when 
laid up; and all their varieties may, unhammered, 
except to strike off projecting points or angles, be laid 
up with a sufficiently smooth face to give fine effect to 
a building. Thus, when easily obtained, aside from 
the greater advantages of their durability, stone is as 
cheap in the first instance as lumber, excepting in new 
districts of country where good building lumber is the 
chief article of production, and cheaper than brick in 
any event. Stone requires no paint. Its color is a 
natural, therefore an agreeable one, be it usually what 
it may, although some shades are more grateful to the 
eye than others; yet it is always in harmony with 
natural objects, and particularly so on the farm where 
everything ought to wear the most substantial appear- 
ance. The outer walls of a stone house should always 
be ftrred off inside for lathing and plastering, to keep 
them thoroughly dry. Without that, the rooms are 
liable to dampness, which would penetrate through the 
stone into the inside plastering unless cut off by an 
open space of air between. 

Bricks, where stone is not found, supply its place 



KTJBAL ARCHITECTURE. 39 

tolerably well. When made of good clay, rightly 
tempered with sand, and well burned, they will in a 
wall remain for centuries, and as far as material is 
concerned, answer all purposes. Brick walls may be 
thinner than stone walls, but they equally require 
"firring off " for inside plastering, and in addition, 
they need the aid of paint quite as often as wood, to 
give them an agreeable color bricks themselves not 
usually being in the category of desirable colors or 
shades. 

Wood, when abundant and easily obtained, is worked 
with the greatest facility, and on many accounts, is the 
cheapest material, for the time, of which a building 
can be constructed. But it is perishable. It requires 
every few years a coat of paint, and is always asso- 
ciated with the idea of decay. Yet wood may be 
moulded into an infinite variety of form to please 
the eye, in the indulgence of any peculiar taste or 
fancy. 

We cannot, in the consideration of material for 
house-building therefore, urge upon the farmer the 
adoption of either of the above named materials to the 
preference of another, in any particular structure he 
may require ; but leave him to consult his own circum- 
stances in regard to them, as best he may. But this 
we will say: If it be possible, never lay a cellar or 
underground wall of perisha,ble material, such as wood 
or soft bricks ; nor build with soft or uribumt bricks 
in a wall exposed to the weather wnywhere / nor with 
stone which is liable to crumble or disintegrate by the 
action of frost or water upon it. We are aware that 



40 KUBAL AEGHITEOTURE. 

unburnt bricks have been strongly recommended for 
house-building in America; but from observation, we 
are fully persuaded that they are worthless for any 
permanent structure, and if used, will in the end 
prove a dead loss in their application. Cottages, out- 
buildings, and other cheap erections on the farm, for 
the accommodation of laborers, stock, or crops, may be 
made of wood, where wood is the cheapest -and most 
easily obtained ; and, even "taking its perishable nature 
into account, it may be the most economical. In their 
construction, it may be simply a matter of calculation 
with him who needs them, to calculate the first cost of 
any material he has at hand, or may obtain, and to 
that add the interest upon it, the annual wear and tear, 
the insurance, and the period it may last, to determine 
this matter to his entire satisfaction always provided 
he have the means at hand to do either. But other 
considerations generally control the American farmer. 
His pocket is apt more often to be pinched, than his 
choice is to be' at fault; and this weighty argument 
compels him into the "make shift" system, which 
perhaps in its results, provided the main chance be 
attained, is quite as advantageous to his interests as 
the other. 

As a general remark, all buildings should show for 
themselves, what they are built of. Let stone be 
stone ; bricks show on their own account ; and of all 
things, put no counterfeit by way of plaster, stucco, or 
other false pretence other than paint, or a durable 
wash upon wood : it is a miserable affectation always, 
and of no possible use whatever. All counterfeit of 






BUBAL ABCHlTEOTUBE. 41 

any kind as little becomes the buildings of the farmer, 
as the gilded pincTibeck watch would fit the finished 
attire of a gentleman. 

Before submitting the several designs proposed for 
this work, it may be remarked, that in addressing 
them to a climate strictly American, we have in every 
instance adopted the wide, steeply-pitched roof, with 
broad eaves, gables and cornices, as giving protection, 
shade, and shelter to the walls ; thus keeping them dry 
and in good preservation, and giving that well housed, 
and comfortable expression, so different from the stiff, 
pinched, and tucked-up look in which so many of the 
haberdasher-built houses of the present day exult. 

We give some examples of the hipped roof, because 
they are convenient and cheap in their construction; 
and we also throw into the designs a lateral direction 
to the roofs of the wings, or connecting parts of the 
building. This is sometimes done for effect in archi- 
tectural appearance, and sometimes for the economy 
and advantage of the building itself. "Where roofs 
thus intersect or connect with a side wall, the connect- 
ing gutters should be made of copper, zinc, lead, gal- 
vanized iron, or tin, into which the shingles, if they be 
covered with that material, should be laid so as to 
effectually prevent leakage. The eave gutters should 
be of copper, zinc, lead, galvanized iron or tin, also, 
and placed at least one foot back from the edge of the 
roof, and lead the water into conductors down the wall 
into the cistern or elsewhere, as may be required. If 
the water be not needed, and the roof be wide over the 
walls, there is no objection to let it pass off naturally, 



EUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 



if it be no inconvenience to the ground below, and can 
run off, or be absorbed into the ground without detri- 
ment to the cellar walls. All this must be subject to 
the judgment of the proprietor himself. 



OUTSIDE COLOR 

We are not among those who cast off, and on a 
sudden condemn, as out of all good taste the time-hon- 
ored white house with its green blinds, often so taste- 
fully gleaming out from beneath the shade of .summer 
trees ; nor do we doggedly adhere to it, except when 
in keeping, by contrast or otherwise, with everything 
around it. For a century past white has been the 
chief color of our wooden houses, and often so of brick 
ones, in the United States. This color has been sup- 
posed to be strong and durable, being composed chiefly 
of white lead ; and as it reflected the rays of the sun 
instead of absorbing them, as some of the darker colors 
do, it was thus considered a better preserver of the 
weather-boarding from the cracks which the fervid 
heat of the sun is apt to make upon it, than the darker 
colors. White, consequently, has always been consid- 
ered, until within a few years past, as a fitting and 
tasteful color for dwellings, both in town and country. 
A new school of taste in colors has risen, however, 
within a few years past, among us ; about the same 
time, too, that the recent gingerbread and beadwork 



BUBAL AECHITECTUKB. 43 

style of country building was introduced. And these 
were both, as all new things are apt to be, carried to 
extremes. Instead of toning down the glare of the 
white into some quiet, neutral shade, as a straw color ; 
a drab of different hues always an agreeable and 
appropriate color for a dwelling, particularly when the 
door and window casings are dressed with a deeper or 
lighter shade, as those shades predominate in the 
main body of the house ; or a natural and soft wood 
color, which also may be of various shades ; or even 
the warm russet hue of some of our rich stones quite 
appropriate, too, as applied to wood, or bricks the 
fashion must be followed without either rhyme or 
reason, and hundreds of our otherwise pretty and 
imposing country houses have been daubed over with 
the dirtiest, gloomiest pigment imaginable, making 
every habitation which it touched look more like a 
funeral appendage than a cheerful, life-enjoying home 
We candidly say that we have no sort of affection for 
such sooty daubs. The fashion which dictates them is 
a barbarous, false, and arbitrary fashion ; void of all 
natural taste in its inception; and to one who has a 
cheerful, life-loving spirit about him, such colors have 
no more fitness on his dwelling or out-buildings, than 
a tomb would have in his lawn or dooryard. 

Locality, amplitude of the buildings, the purpose to 
which they are applied every consideration con- 
nected with them, in fact, should be consulted, as to 
color. Stone will give its own color; which, by the 
wny, some prodigiously smart folks paint quite as 
decorous or essential, as to " paint the lily." Brick 



44 BUBAL AKCHirECTUitE. 

sometimes must be painted, but it should be of a colof 
in keeping with its character, of substance and dig- 
nity ; not a counterfeit of stone, or to cheat him whc 
looks upon it into a belief that it may be marble, or 
other unfounded pretension. A warm russet is most 
appropriate for brick- work of any kind of color the 
color of a russet apple, or undressed leather shades 
that comport with Milton's beautiful idea of 

" Russet lawns and fallows gray." 

Red and yellow are both too glaring, and slate, or lead 
colors too somber and cold. It is, in fact, a strong 
argument in favor of bricks in building, where they 
can be had as cheap as stone or wood, that any color 
can be given to them which the good taste of the 
builder may require, in addition to their durability, 
which, when made of good material, and properly 
burned, is quite equal to stone. In a wooden struc- 
ture one may play with his fancy in the way of coloi, 
minding in the operation, that he does not play the 
mountebank, and like the clown in the circus, make 
his tattooed tenement the derision of men of correct 
taste, as the other does his burlesque visage the ridicule 
of his auditors. 

A wooden country house, together with its out-build- 
ings, should -always be of a cheerful and softly-toned 
color a color giving a feeling of warmth and comfort; 
nothing glaring or flashy about it. And yet, such 
buildings should not, in their color, any more than in 
their architecture, appear as if imitating either stone 
or brick. Wood, of itself, is light. One cannot build 



KUBAi AROHITECTUIiE. 4:5 

a heavy house of wood, as compared with brick or 
stone. Therefore all imitation or device which may 
lead to a belief that it may be other than what it really 
is, is nothing less than a fraud not criminal, we admit, 
but none the less a fraud upon good taste and archi- 
tectural truth. 

It is true that in this country we cannot afford to 
place in stone and brick buildings those ornate trim- 
mings and appendages which, perhaps, if economy 
were not to be consulted, might be more durably con- 
structed of stone, but at an expense too great to be 
borne by those of moderate means. Yet it is not 
essential that such appendages should be of so expen- 
sive material. The very purposes to which they are 
applied, as a parapet, a railing, a balustrade, a portico, 
piazza, or porch ; all these may be of wood, even when 
the material of the house proper is of the most durable 
kind ; and by being painted in keeping with the build- 
ing itself, produce a fine effect, and do no violence to 
good taste or the most fastidious propriety. They may 
be even sanded to a color, and grained, stained, or 
otherwise brought to an identity, almost, with the 
material of the house, and be quite proper, because 
they simply are appendages of convenience, necessity, 
or luxury, to the building itself, and may be taken 
away without injuring or without defacing the main 
structure. They are not a 'material part of the build- 
ing itself, but reared for purposes which may be dis- 
pensed with. It is a matter of taste or preference, that 
they were either built there, or that they remain per- 
manently afterward, and of consequence, proper that 



46 BUBAL ABOHTTEOTTTKE. 

they be of wood. Yet they should not imitate stone or 
brick. They should still show that they are of wood, 
but in color and outside preservation denote that they 
are appendages to a stone or brick house, by complying 
with the proper shades in color which predominate in 
the building itself, and become their own subordinate 
character. 

JSTot being a professional painter, or compounder of 
colors, we shall offer no receipts or specifics for paint- 
ing or washing buildings. Climate affects the compo- 
sition of both paints and washes, and those who are 
competent in this line, are the proper persons to dictate 
their various compositions; and we do but common 
justice to the skill and intelligence of our numerous 
mechanics, when we recommend to those who contem- 
plate building, to apply forthwith to such as are masters 
of their trade for all the information they require on 
the various subjects connected with it. One who sets 
out to be his own architect, builder, and painter, is 
akin to the lawyer in the proverb, who has a fool for 
his client, when pleading his own case, and quite as 
apt to have quack in them all. Hints, general out- 
lines, and oftentimes matters of detail in interior con- 
venience, and many other minor affairs may be given 
by the proprietor, when he is neither a professional 
architect, mechanic, or even an amateur; but in all 
things affecting the substantial and important parts of 
his buildings, he should consult those who are proficient 
and experienced in the department on which he con- 
sults them. And it may perhaps be added that none 
professing to be such, are competent, unless well 



KUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 4:7 

instructed, and whose labors have met the approbation 
of those competent to judge. 

There is one kind of color, prevailing to a great 
extent in many parts of our country, particularly the 
northern and eastern, which, in its effect upon any one 
having an eye to a fitness of things in country build- 
ings, is a monstrous perversion of good taste. That is 
the glaring red, made up of Venetian red, ochre, or 
Spanish brown, with doors and windows touched off 
with white. The only apology we have ever heard 
given for such a barbarism was, that it is a good, 
strong, and lasting color. We shall not go into an 
examination as to that fact, but simply answer, that if 
it be so, there are other colors, not more expensive, 
which are equally strong and durable, and infinitely 
more tasteful and fitting. There can be nothing less 
comporting with the simplicity of rural scenery, than a 
glaring red color on a building. It connects with 
nothing natural about it; it neither fades into any 
surrounding shade of soil or vegetation, and must of 
necessity, stand out in its own bold and unshrouded 
impudence, a perfect Ishmaelite in color, and a perver- 
sion of every thing harmonious in the design. "We 
eschew red, therefore, from every thing in rural ar- 
chitecture. 



48 KUEAL AKCHITECTDKB 



A SHOKT CHAPTER ON TASTE. 



The compound words, or terms good-taste and 'bad- 
taste have been used in the preceding pages without, 
perhaps, sufficiently explaining what is meant by the 
word taste, other than as giving vague and unsatisfac- 
tory terms to the reader in measuring the subject in 
hand. Taste is a term universally applied in criticism 
of the fine-arts, such as painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, &c., &c., of which there are many schools of 
taste, we mean some of them, perhaps natural, but 
chiefly conventional, and all . more or less arbitrary. 
The proverb, " there is no accounting for taste," is as 
old as the aforesaid schools themselves, and defines 
perfectly our own estimate of the common usage of 
the term. 

As we have intended to use it, Webster defines the 
word taste to be " the faculty of discerning beauty, 
order, congruity, proportion, symmetry, or whatever 
constitutes excellence; style; manner with respect to 
what is pleasing." "With this understanding, therefore ; 
a fitness to the purpose for which a thing is intended 
got up in a manner agreeable to the eye and the mind 



RTJKAL ABCHirECTTTRE. 4:9 

preserving also a harmony between its various parts 
and uses; pleasing to the eye, as addressed to the 
sense, and satisfactory to the mind, as appropriate to 
the object for which it is required ; these constitute 
good-taste, as the term is here understood. 

The term style, also, is " the manner or form of a 
thing." "When we say, " that is a stylish house," it 
should mean that it is in, or approaches some partic- 
ular style of building recognized by the schools. It 
may or may not be in accordance with good taste, and 
is, consequently, subject to the same capricious test in 
its government. Yet styles are subject to arrangement, 
and are classified in the several schools of architecture, 
either as distinct specimens of acknowledged orders, 
as the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, in Grecian 
architecture, or, the Tuscan and Composite, which are, 
more distinctly, styles of Roman architecture. To 
these may be added the Egyptian, the most massive 
of all ; and either of them, in their proper character, 
grand and imposing when applied to public buildings 
or extensive structures, but altogether inapplicable, 
from their want of lightness and convenience, to coun- 
try or even city dwellings. Other styles not exactly 
orders of architecture, such as the Italian, the Ro- 
manesque, the Gothic, the Swiss, with their modifica- 
tions all of which admit of a variety of departures 
from fixed rules, not allowed in the more rigid orders 
may be adapted in a variety of ways, to the most 
agreeable and harmonious arrangement in architectu- 
ral effect, for dwellings and structures appurtenant 
to them. 



50 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The Italian style of architecture, modified somewhat 
in pretension and extent, is admirably adapted to most 
parts of the United States. Its general lightness, open- 
ness, and freedom gives a wide range of choice ; and 
its wings, verandas, and terraces, stretching off in any 
and almost every direction desired, from the main 
building, make it exceedingly appropriate for general 
use. The modern, or rural Gothic, branching off some- 
times into what is termed the English cottage style, 
and in many instances blending so intimately with the 
Italian, as hardly to mark the line of division, is also a 
beautiful arrangement of building for country dwel- 
lings. These, in ruder structures, may also be carried 
into the Rustic not a style proper, in itself but so 
termed as approximating in execution or pretension to 
either of the above ; while the Swiss, with its hanging 
roofs, and sheltering eaves may be frequently brought 
in aid to show out the rustic form in more complete- 
ness, and in greater harmony with surrounding objects, 
than either of the others. 

For farm houses, either of these awangements or 
departures from a set and positive style, are better fit- 
ted than any which we have noticed ; and in some one 
or other of the modifications named, we have applied 
them in the examples submitted in this work. They 
may not therefore be viewed as distinct delineations 
of an order of architecture, or style proper, even ; but 
as a mode appropriate to the object required. And so 
long as they do not absolutely conflict with true taste, 
or in their construction commit a barbarism upon any 
acknowledged system of architecture, in any of its 



BUBAL AECHITEOTUEE. 51 

modifications, we hazard no impropriety in introducing 
them for the imitation of country builders. Congruity 
with the objects to which it is applied should be the 
chief merit of any structure whatever ; and so long as 
that object be attained, good taste is not violated, and 
utility is fully subserved. 

Intimately connected with this subject, in rural build 
ings, is the shape of the structure. Many of the 
designs recently introduced for the imitation of build- 
ers, are full of angles and all sorts of zig-zag lines, 
which, although they may add to the variety of style, 
or relieve the monotony of straight and continuous 
lines, are carried to a needless excess, expensive in 
their construction, and entail infinite trouble upon the 
owner or occupant, in the repairs they subject him to, 
in the leakages continually occurring, against which 
last, either of wind or rain, it is almost impossible to 
guard. And what, let us ask, are the benefits of a 
parcel of needless gables and peaked windows, running 
up like owl's ears, above the eaves of a house, except 
to create expense, and invite leakage and decay ? If 
in appearance, they provoke an association of that 
kind, they certainly are not in good taste ; and a foot 
or two of increased height in a wall, or a low window 
sufficient for the purpose intended, would give a tone 
of dignity, of comfort, and real utility, which a whole 
covey of such pretentious things could not. All such 
trumpery should be scouted from the dwelling house 
of the farmer, and left to the special indulgence of the 
town builder. 

A square form of house will afford more area within 



52 BTTKAL ARCHTTECTITBE. 

a given line of wall than any other sensible form which 
may be adopted. Yet a square house is not so agree- 
able to the eye as an oblong. Thus, a house should 
stand somewhat broader on one front than on another. 
It should also be relieved from an appearance of mon- 
otony and tameness, by one or more wings ; and such 
wings should, at their junction with the main building, 
retreat or advance a sufficient distance from a contin- 
uous line, as to relieve it effectually from an appearance 
of stiflhess, and show a different character of occupa- 
tion from that of the main structure. The front of a 
house should be the most imposing and finished in its 
architecture of any one of its parts ; and unless some 
motive of greater convenience control otherwise, its 
entrance the most highly wrought, as indicating the 
luxury of the establishment for even the humblest 
habitations have their luxuries. The side rooms, or 
more usually occupied apartments, require less pre- 
tension in both architectural effect and finish, and 
should wear a more subdued appearance; while the 
kitchen section, and from that, the several grades of 
apartments stretching beyond it, should distinctly show 
that they are subservient in their character, and wear 
a style and finish accordingly. Thus, each part of the 
house speaks for itself. It is its own finger-board, 
pointing the stranger to its various accommodation, as 
plainly as if written on its walls, and saying as signifi- 
cantly as dumb walls can do, that here dwells a well 
regulated family, who have a parlor for their friends ; 
a library, or sitting-room for their own leisure and com- 
fort; an ample bedroom and nursery, for the parents 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 53 

and the little ones; a kitchen\for the cooking; and 
a scullery and closets, and all the other etceteras which 
belong to a perfect family homestead. 

And so with the grounds. The lawn or " dooryard," 
should be the best kept ground on the place. The 
most conspicuous part of the garden should show its 
shrubbery and its flowers. The side or rear approach 
should be separated from the lawn, and show its con- 
stant business occupation, and openly lead off to where 
men and farm stock meet on common ground, devoted 
to every purpose which the farm requires. Such 
arrangement would be complete in all its parts, satis- 
factory, and lasting. Tinsel ornament, or gewgaw 
decoration should never be permitted on any building 
where the sober enjoyment of agricultural life is de- 
signed. It can never add consideration or dignity to 
the retired gentleman even, and least of all should it 
be indulged in by the farmer, dwelling on his own 

cultivated acres. 
3 



54 BTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 



THE CONSTEUCTIOlSr OF CELLAES. 



Every farm house and farm cottage, where a family 
of any size occupy the latter, should have a good, 
substantial stone-walled cellar beneath it. No room 
attached to the farm house is more profitable, in its 
occupation, than the cellar. It is useful for storing 
numberless articles which are necessary to be kept 
warm and dry in winter, as well as cool in summer, of 
which the farmer is well aware. The walls of a cellar 
should rise at least one, to two, or even three feet 
above the level of the ground surrounding it, according 
to circumstances, and the rooms in it well ventilated 
by two or more sliding sash windows in each, accord- 
ing to size, position, and the particular kind of storage 
for which it is required, so that a draft of pure air can 
pass through, and give it thorough ventilation at all 
times. It should also be at least seven and a half feet 
high in the clear ; and if it be even nine feet, that is 
not too much. If the soil be compact, or such as will 
hold water, it should be thoroughly drained from the 
lowest point or corner, and the drain always kept open ; 
(a stone drain is the best and most durable,) and if 



KURAL ARCHITECTURE. 55 

floored with a coat of flat, or rubble stones, wtJl set in 
good hydraulic cement or cement alone, when the 
stone cannot be obtained all the better. This last 
will make it rat proof . For the purpose of avoiding 
these destructive creatures, the foundation stones in 
the wall should be brought to a joint, and project at 
least six inches on each side, from the wall itself, when 
laid upon this bottom course ; as the usual manner of 
rats is to burrow in a nearly perpendicular direction 
from the surface, by the side of the wall, when intend- 
ing to undermine it. On arriving at the bottom, if 
circumvented by the projecting stones, they will usu- 
ally abandon their work. Plank of hard wood, or hard 
burnt bricks, may answer this purpose when stone 
cannot be had. 

All cellar walls should be laid in good lime mortar, 
or if that be not practicable, they should be well 
pointed with it. This keeps them in place, and ren- 
ders them less liable to the ingress of water and vermin. 
The thickness of wall should not be less than fifteen to 
eighteen inches, in any event, when of stone ; and if 
the house walls above be built of stone or brick, two 
feet is better ; and in all cases the cellar wall should be 
full three inches thicker than the wall resting upon it. 

In the cellar of every farm house there should be 
an outside door, with a flight of steps by which to pass 
roots and other bulky or heavy articles, to which a 
wagon or cart may approach, either to receive or dis- 
charge them. This is indispensable. 

Every out-building upon the farm, let it be devoted 
to what purpose it may, having a wooden floor on the 



56 KTJRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

ground story, should be set up sufficiently high from 
the surface to admit a cat or small terrier dog beneath 
such floor, with openings for them to pass in and out, 
or these hiding places will become so many rat war- 
rens upon the premises, and prove most destructive to 
the grain and poultry. Nothing can be more annoy- 
ing to the farmer than these vermin, and a trifling 
outlay in the beginning, will exclude them from the 
foundations and walls of all buildings. Care, there- 
fore, should be taken to leave no haunt for their 
convenience. 

With these suggestions the ingenuity of every builder 
will provide sufficient guards against the protection of 
vermin beneath his buildings. 



VENTILATION OF HOUSES. 

Pure air, and enough of it, is the cheapest blessing 
one can enjoy; and to deny one's self so indispensable 
an element of good health, is little short of criminal 
neglect, or the sheerest folly. Yet thousands who build 
at much needless expense, for the protection of their 
health and that of their families, as they allege, and 
no doubt suppose, by neglecting the simplest of all 
contrivances, in the work of ventilation, invite disease 
and infirmity, from the very pains they eo unwittingly 
take to ward off such afflictions. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 57 

A inau, be he farmer or of other profession, finding 
himself prosperous in life, sets about the very sensible 
business of building a house for his own accommoda- 
tion. Looking back, perhaps, to the days of his boy- 
hood, in a severe climate, he remembers the not very 
highly-finished tenement of his father, and the wide, 
open fireplace which, with its well piled logs, was 
scarcely able to warm the large living-room, where the 
family were wont to huddle in winter. He possibly 
remembers, with shivering sympathy, the sprinkling 
of snow which he was accustomed to find upon his bed 
as he awaked in the morning, that had found its way 
through the frail casing of his chamber window but 
in the midst of all which he grew up with a vigorous 
constitution, a strong arm, and a determined spirit. 
He is resolved that Ms children shall encounter no 
such hardships, and that himself and his excellent 
helpmate shall suffer no such inconvenience as his 
own parents had done, who now perhaps, are enjoying 
a strong and serene old age, in their old-fashioned, yet 
to them not uncomfortable tenement. He therefore 
determines to have a snug, close house, where the cold 
cannot penetrate. He employs all his ingenuity to 
make every joint an air-tight fit; the doors must swing 
to an air-tight joint; the windows set into air-tight 
frames ; and to perfect the catalogue of his comforts, 
an air-tight stove is introduced into every occupied 
room which, perchance, if he can afford it, are further 
warmed and poisoned by the heated flues of an air- 
tight furnace in his air-tight cellar. In short, it is an 
air-tight concern throughout. His family breathe an 



58 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

air-tight atmosphere ; they eat their food cooked in an 
" air-tight kitchen witch," of the latest " premium pat- 
tern;" and thus they start, father, mother, children, 
all on the high road if persisted in to a galloping 
consumption, which sooner or later conducts them to 
an air-tight dwelling, not soon to be changed. If such 
melancholy catastrophe be avoided, colds, catarrhs, 
headaches, and all sorts of bodily afflictions shortly 
make their appearance, and they wonder what is the 
matter ! They live so snug ! their house is so warm ! 
they sleep so comfortable ! how can it be ? True, in 
the morning the air of their sleeping- rooms feels close, 
but then if a window is opened it will chill the rooms, 
and that will give them colds. What can be the 
matter? The poor creatures never dream that they 
have been breathing, for hour after hour, decomposed 
air, charged with poisonous gases, which cannot es- 
cape through the tight walls, or over the tight win- 
dows, or through the tight stoves ; and thus they keep 
on in the sure course to infirmity, disease, and pre- 
mature death all for the want of a little ventilation ! 
Better indeed, that instead of all this painstaking, a 
pane were knocked out of every window, or a panel 
out of every door in the house. 

"We are not disposed to talk about cellar furnaces for 
heating a farmer's house. They have little to do in 
the farmer's inventory of goods at all, unless it be to 
give warmth to the hall and even then a snug box 
stove, with its pipe passing into the nearest chimney 
is, in most cases, the better appendage. Fuel is usu 
ally abundant with the farmer; and where so, its 



EUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 59 

benefits are much better dispensed in open stoves or 
fireplaces, than in heating furnaces or " air-tights." 

We have slightly discussed this subject of firing in 
the farm house, in a previous page, but while in the 
vein, must crave another word. A farmer's house 
should look hospitable as well as be hospitable, both 
outside and in; and the broadest, most cheerful look 
of hospitality within doors, in cold weather, is an open 
fire in the chimney fireplace, with the blazing wood 
upon it. There is no mistake about it. It thaws you 
out, if cold ; it stirs you up, if drooping ; and is the 
welcome, winning introduction to the good cheer that 
is to follow 

A short time ago we went to pay a former town 
friend a visit. He had removed out to a snug little 
farm, where he could indulge his agricultural and hor- 
ticultural tastes, yet still attend to his town engage- 
ments, and enjoy the quietude of the country. We 
rang the door bell. A servant admitted us; and 
leaving overcoat and hat in the hall, we entered a lone 
room, with an " air-tight " stove, looking as black and 
solemn as a Turkish eunuch upon us, and giving out 
about the same degree of genial warmth as the said 
eunuch would have expressed had he been there an 
emasculated warming machine truly! On the floor 
was a Wilton carpet, too fine to stand on ; around the 
room were mahogany sofas and mahogany chairs, all 
too fine to sit on at all events to rest one upon if he 
were fatigued. The blessed light of day was shut out 
by crimson and white curtains, held up by gilded 
arrows ; and upon the mantle piece, and on the center 



60 BURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and side tables were all sorts of gimcracks, costly and 
worthless. In short, there was no comfort about the 
whole concern. Hearing onr friend coming up from 
his dining-room below, where too, was his cellar kitch- 
en that most abominable of all appendages to a farm 
house, or to any other country house, for that matter 
we buttoned our coat up close and high, thrust our 
hands into our pockets, and walked the room, as he 
entered. "Glad to see you glad to see you, my 
friend ! " said he, in great joy ; " but dear me, why so 
buttoned up, as if you were going ? What 's the mat- 
ter?" "My good sir," we replied, "you asked us to 
come over and see you, ' a plain farmer, ,' and ' take a 
quiet family dinner with you.' -We have done so; 
and here find you with all your town nonsense about 
you. No fire to warm by; no seat to rest in; no 
nothing like a farm or farmer about you ; and it only 
needs your charming better half, whom we always ad- 
mired, when she lived in town, to take down her 
enameled harp, and play 

' In fairy bowers by moonlight hours,' 

to convince one that instead of ruralizing in the coun- 
try, you had gone a peg higher in town residence! 
No, no, we '11 go down to farmer Jocelyn's, our old 
schoolfellow, and take a dinner of bacon and cabbage 
with him. If he does occupy a one-story house, he 
lives up in sunshine, has an open fireplace, with a 
blazing wood fire on a chilly day, and his ' latch string 
is always out.' " 

Our friend was petrified astonished ! "We meant 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 61 

to go it rather strong upon him, but still kept & frank, 
good-humored face, that showed him no malice. He 
began to think he was not exactly in character, and 
essayed to explain. "We listened to his story. His 
good wife came in, and all together, we had a long talk 
of their family and farming arrangements ; how they 
had furnished their house ; and how they proposed to 
live; but wound up with a sad story, that their good 
farming neighbors did'nt call on them the second 
time kind, civil people they appeared, too and 
while they were in, acted as though afraid to sit down, 
and afraid to stand up ; in short, they were dreadfully 
embarrassed; for why, our friends couldn't tell, but 
now began to understand it. "Well, my good friends," 
said we, " you have altogether mistaken country life in 
the outset. To live on a farm, it is neither necessary 
to be vulgar, nor clownish, nor to affect ignorance. 
Simplicity is all you require, in manners, and equal 
simplicity in your furniture and appointments. Now 
just turn all this nonsense in furniture and room 
dressing out of doors, and let some of your town 
friends have it. Get some simple, comfortable, cottage 
furniture, much better for all purposes, than this, and 
you will settle down into quiet, natural country life 
before you are aware of it, and all will go ' merry as a 
marriage bell ' with you, in a little time " for they both 
loved the country, and were truly excellent people. 
"We continued, "I came to spend the day and the 
night, and I will stay ; and this evening we '11 go down 

to your neighbor Jocelyn's; and you, Mrs. N , 

shall go with us; and we will see how quietly and 



62 BUBAL AECHITECTUBE. 

comfortably he and his family take the world m a 
farmer's way." 

We did go ; not in carriage and livery, but walked 
the pleasant half mile that lay between them; the 
exercise of which gave us all activity and good spirits. 
Jocelyn was right glad to see us, and Patty, his staid 
and sober wife, with whom we had romped many an 
innocent hour in our childhood days, was quite as glad 
as he. But they looked a little surprised that such 
" great folks " as their new neighbors, should drop in 
so unceremoniously, and into their common " keeping 
room," too, to chat away an evening. . However, the 
embarrassment soon wore off. We talked of farming ; 
we talked of the late elections ; we talked of the fruit 
trees and the strawberry beds ; and Mrs. Jocelyn, who 

was a pattern of good housekeeping, told Mrs. N" 

how she made her apple jellies, and her currant tarts, 
and cream cheeses ; and before we left they had ex- 
changed ever so many engagements, Mrs. Patty to 
learn her new friend to do half a dozen nice little mat- 
ters of household pickling and preserving ; while she, 
in turn, was to teach Nancy and Fanny, Patty's two 
rosy-cheeked daughters, almost as pretty as their moth- 
er was at their own age, to knit a bead bag and work 
a fancy chair seat! And then we had apples and nuts, 
all of the very best for Jocelyn was a rare hand at 
grafting and managing his fruit trees, and knew the 
best apples all over the country. We had, indeed, a 
capital time ! To cut the story short, the next spring 
our friend sent his fancy furniture to auction, and 
provided his house with simple cottage furnishings, at 



EURAI, AECHITECTURE. 63 

less than half the cost of the other ; which both he and 
his wife afterward declared was infinitely better, for all 
house-keeping purposes. He also threw a neat wing 
on to the cottage, for an upper kitchen and its offices, 
and they now live like sensible country folks ; and with 
their healthy, frolicksome children, are worth the envy 
of all the dyspeptic, town-fed people in existence. 

A long digression, truly; but so true a story, and 
one so apt to our subject can not well be omitted. 
But what has all this to do with ventilation? We'll 
tell you. Jocelyn's house was ventilated as it should 
be; for he was a methodical, thoughtful man, who 
planned and built his house himself not the mechan- 
ical work, but directed it throughout, and saw that 
it was faithfully done; and that put us in mind of 
the story. 

To be perfect in its ventilation, every room in the 
house, even to the closets, should be so arranged that a 
current of air may pass through, to keep it pure and 
dry. In living rooms, fresh air in sufficient quantity 
may usually be admitted through the doors. In sleep- 
ing rooms and closets, when doors may not be left 
open, one or more of the lower panels of the door may 
be filled by a rolling blind, opening more or less, at 
pleasure ; or a square or oblong opening for that pur- 
pose, may be left in the base board, at the floor, and 
covered by a wire netting. And in all rooms, living 
apartments, as well as these, an opening of at least 
sixty -four square inches should be made in the wall, 
near the ceiling, and leading into an air flue, to pass 
into \he garret. Such opening may bo filled by a 



64 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

rolling blind, or wire screen, as below, and closed or 
kept open, at pleasure. Some builders prefer an air 
register to be placed in the chimney, over the fireplace 
or stove, near the ceiling ; but the liability to annoy- 
ance, by Smoke escaping through it into the room, if 
not thoroughly done, is an objection to this latter 
method, and the other may be made, in its construc- 
tion, rather ornamental than otherwise, in appearance. 
All such details as these should be planned when the 
building is commenced, so that the several flues may be 
provided as the building proceeds. In a stone or brick 
house, a small space may be left in the walls, against 
which these air registers may be required; and for 
inner rooms, or closets, they may pass off into the 
openings of the partitions, and so up into the garret ; 
from which apertures of escape may be left, or made 
at the gables, under the roof, or by a blind in a window. 
For the admission of air to the first floor of the 
house, a special opening through the walls, for that 
purpose, can hardly be necessary ; as the doors leading 
outside are usually opened often enough for such object. 
One of the best ventilated houses we have ever seen, is 
that owned and occupied by Samuel Cloon, Esq., of 
Cincinnati. It is situated on his farm, three miles out 
of the city, and in its fine architectural appearance and 
finished appointments, as a rural residence and first- 
class farm house, is not often excelled. Every closet is 
ventilated through rolling blinds in the door panels; 
and foul air, either admitted or created within them, is 
passed off at once by flues uear the ceiling overhead, 
passing into conductors leading off through the garret 



KUKAL AKCHITECTUBE. 65 

Where chambers are carried into the roof of a house, 
to any extent, they are sometimes incommoded by the 
summer heat which penetrates them, conducted by the 
chamber ceiling overhead. This heat can best be 
obviated by inserting a small window at each opposite 
peak of the garret, by which the outside air can circu- 
late through, above the chambers, and so pass off the 
heated air, which will continually ascend. All this is 
a simple matter, for which any builder can provide, 
without particular expense or trouble. 



INTERIOR ACCOMMODATION OF HOUSES. 

Ground, in the country, being the cheapest item 
which the farmer can devote to building purposes, hia 
object should be to spread over, rather than to go 
deeply into it, or climb high in the aii above it. "We 
repudiate cellar kitchens, or under-ground rooms for 
house work, altogether, as being little better than a 
nuisance dark, damp, unhealthy, inconvenient, and 
expensive. The several rooms of a farm dwelling 
house should be compact in arrangement, and contig- 
uous as may be to the principally -occupied apartments. 
Such arrangement is cheaper, more convenient, and 
labor-saving ; and in addition, more in accordance with 
a good and correct taste in the outward appearance of 
the house itself. 



66 EUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The general introduction of cooking stoves, and othei 
stoves and apparatus for warming houses, within the 
last twenty years, which we acknowledge to be a great 
acquisition in comfort as well as in convenience and 
economy, has been carried to an extreme, not only in 
shutting up and shutting out the time-honored open 
fireplace and its broad hearthstone, with their hal- 
lowed associations, but also in prejudice to the health 
of those who so indiscriminately use them, regardless 
of other arrangements which ought to go with them. 
A farm house should never be built without an ample, 
open fireplace in its kitchen, and other principally 
occupied rooms; and in all rooms where stoves are 
placed, and fires are daily required, the open Franklin 
should take place of the close or air-tight stove, unless 
extraordinary ventilation to such rooms be adopted 
also. The great charm of the farmer's winter evening 
is the open fireside, with its cheerful blaze and glow- 
ing embers ; not wastefully expended, but giving out 
that genial warmth and comfort which, to those who 
are accustomed to its enjoyment, is a pleasure not 
made up by any invention whatever ; and although the 
cooking stove or range be required which, in addi- 
tion to the fireplace, we would always recommend, to 
lighten female labor it can be so arranged as not to 
interfere with the enjoyment or convenience of the 
open fire. 

In the construction of the chimneys which appear 
in the plans submitted, the great majority of them 
particularly those for northern latitudes are placed 
in the interior of the house. They are less liable to 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 67 

communicate fire to the building, and assist greatly in 
warming the rooms through which they pass. In 
southern houses they are not so necessary, fires being 
required for a much less period of the year. Yet even 
there they may be oftentimes properly so placed. 
Where holes, for the passage of stovepipes through 
floors, partitions, or into chimneys, are made, stone, 
earthen, or iron thimbles should be inserted ; and, except 
in the chimneys, such holes should be at least one to 
two inches larger than the pipe itself. The main flues 
of the chimney conducting oif the smoke of the differ- 
ent fires, should be built separate, and kept apart by a 
partition of one brick in thickness, and carried out 
independently, as in no other way will they rid the 
house of smoky rooms. 

An illustration in point: Fifteen years ago we 
purchased and removed into a most substantial and 
well-built stone house, the chimneys of which were 
constructed with open fireplaces, and the flues carried 
up separately to the top, where they all met upon the 
same level surface, as chimneys in past times usually 
were built, thus. Every fireplace in 
the house (and some- of them had 
stoves in.) smoked intolerably; so 
much so, that when the wind was in 
some quarters the fires had to be 
put out in every room but the kitch- 
en, which, as good luck would have it, smoked less 
although it did smoke there than the others. After 
balancing the matter in our own mind some time, 
whether we should pull down and rebuild the chimneys 




DO BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 

altogether, or attempt an alteration ; as we had given 
but little thought to the subject of chimney draft, and 
to try an experiment was the cheapest, we set to work 
a bricklayer, who, under our direction, simply built 
over each discharge of the several flues a separate top 
of fifteen inches high, in this wise : 
The remedy was perfect. "We have 
had no smoke in the house since, 
blow the wind as it may, on any and 
all occasions. The chimneys can't 
smoke; and the whole expense for 
four chimneys, with their twelve 
flues, was not twenty dollars! The remedy was in 
giving each outlet a distinct current of air all around, 
and on every side of it. 




CHIMNEY TOPS. 

Nothing adds more to the outward expression of a 
dwelling, than the style of its chimneys. We have 
just shown that independent chimney tops pass off 
their smoke more perfectly, than when only partitioned 
inside to the common point of outlet. Aside from the 
architectural beauty which a group of chimney flues 
adds to the building, we have seen that they are really 
useful, beyond the formal, square-sided piles so com- 
mon throughout the country. They denote good cheer 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 69 

social firesides, and a generous hospitality within 
features which should always mark the country dwell- 
ing ; and more particularly that of the farmer. 

The style and arrangement of these chimney groups 
may be various, as comporting with the design of the 
house itself; and any good architect can arrange them 
as fitted to such design. Our illustrations will show 
them of different kinds, which are generally cheap 
in construction, and simple, yet expressive in their 
arrangement. 



PRELIMINARY TO OUR DESIGNS. 

We have discussed with tolerable fullness, the chief 
subjects connected with farm buildings sufficiently 
so, we trust, to make ourselves understood as desiring 
to combine utility with commendable ornament in all 
that pertains to them. The object has been, thus far, 
to give hints, rather than models, in description. But 
as the point to which we have endeavored to arrive 
will be but imperfectly understood without illustration, 
we shall submit a few plans of houses and outbuildings, 
as carrying out more fully our ideas. 

We are quite aware that different forms or fashions 
of detail and finish, to both outside and inside work, 
prevail among builders in different sections of the 
United States. Some of these fashions are the result 

of climate, some of conventional taste, and some of 
4 



70 KUKAL AKCHTTECTUBE. 

education. "With them we are not disposed to quarrel. 
In many cases they are immaterial to the main objects 
of the work, and so long as they please the taste 01 
partialities of those adopting them, are of little conse- 
quence. There are, however, certain matters of prin- 
ciple, both in general construction and in the detail of 
finish, which should not be disregarded ; and these, in 
the designs submitted, and in the explanations which 
follow, will be fully discussed, each in its place. The 
particular form or style of work we have not directed, 
because, as before remarked, we are no professional 
builder, and of course free from the dogmas which are 
too apt to be inculcated in the professional schools and 
workshops. "We give a wide berth, and a free tolera- 
tion in all such matters, and are not disposed to raise a 
hornet's nest about our ears by interfering in matters 
where every tyro of the drafting board and work-bench 
assumes to be, and probably may be, our superior. All 
minor subjects we are free to leave to the skill and 
ingenuity of the builder who, fortunately for the coun- 
try, is found in almost every village and hamlet of 
the land. 

Modes and styles of finish, both inside and outside 
of buildings, change ; and that so frequently, that what 
is laid down as the reigning fashion to-day, may be 
superseded by another fashion of to-morrow imma- 
terial in themselves, only, and not aifecting the shape, 
arrangement, and accommodation of the building itself, 
which in these, must ever maintain their relation with 
the use for which it is intended. The northern dwel- 
ling, with its dependencies and appointments, requires 



BURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

a more compact, snug, and connected arrangement 
than that of the south ; while one in the middle states 
may assume a style of arrangement between them both, 
each fitted for their own climate and country, and in 
equally good taste. The designs we are about to sub- 
mit are intended to be such as may be modified to any 
section of the country, although some of them are 
made for extremes of north and south, and are so dis- 
tinguished. Another object we have had in view is, 
to give to every farmer and country dweller of mod- 
erate means the opportunity of possessing a cheap work 
which would guide him in the general objects which 
he wishes to accomplish in building, that he may ha/ce 
Ms awn notions on the subject, and not be subject to 
the caprice and government of such as profess to 
exclusive knowledge in all that appertains to such 
subjects, and in which, it need not be offensive to say, 
that although clever in their way, they are sometimes 
apt to be mistaken. 

Therefore, without assuming to instruct the profess- 
ional builder, our. plans will be submitted, not without 
the hope that he even, may find in them something 
worthy of consideration; and we offer them to the 
owner and future occupant of the buildings themselves, 
as models which he may adopt, with the confidence 
that they will answer all his reasonable purposes. 



72 KUKAL AECHITECTURE. 



DESIGN I. 

"We here present a farm house of the simplest and 
most unpretending kind, suitable for a farm of twenty, 
fifty, or an hundred acres. Buildings somewhat in 
this style are not unfrequently seen in the New Eng- 
land States, and in ISTew York ; and the plan is in fact 
suggested, although not copied, from some farm houses 
which we have known there, with improvements and 
additions of our own. 

This house may be built either of stone, brick, or 
wood. The style is rather rustic than otherwise, and 
intended to be altogether plain, yet agreeable in out- 
ward appearance, and of quite convenient arrangement. 
The body of this house is 40x30 feet on the ground, 
and 12 feet high, to the plates for the roof; the lower 
rooms nine feet high ; the roof intended for a pitch of 
35 but, by an error in the drawing, made less 
thus affording very tolerable chamber room in the roof 
story. The L, or rear projection, containing the wash- 
room and wood-house, juts out two feet from the side of 
the house to which it is attached, with posts 7i feet 
high above the floor of the main house ; the pitch of 
the roof being the same. Beyond this is a building 
32x24 feet, with 10 feet posts, partitioned off into a 
Bwill-room, piggery, workshop, and wagon-house, and 
a like roof with the others. A light, rustic porch, 




: HOUSE. 



,o 74 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 75 

12x8 feet, with lattice work, is placed on the front 
of the house, and another at the side door, over which 
vines, by way of drapery, may run ; thus combining 
that sheltered, comfortable, and home-like expression 
so desirable in a rural dwelling. The chimney is car- 
ried out in three separate flues, sufficiently marked by 
the partitions above the roof. The windows are hood- 
ed, or sheltered, to protect them from the weather, and 
fitted with simple sliding sashes with 7x9 or 8x10 
glass. Outer blinds may be added, if required ; but it 
is usually better to have these inside, as they are no 
ornament to the outside of the building, are liable to 
be driven back and forth by the wind, even if fasten- 
ings are used, and in any event are little better than a 
continual annoyance. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door, over which is a single sash-light 
across, opens into a hall or entry 9x7 feet, from which 
a door opens on either side into a sitting-room and 
parlor, each 16x15 feet, lighted by a double, plain 
window, at the ends, and a single two-sash window in 
front. Between the entrance door and stove, are in 
each room a small pantry or closet for dishes, or other- 
wise, as may be required. The chimney stands in the 
center of the house, with a separate flue for each front 
room, into which a thimble is inserted to receive the 
stovepipes by which they are warmed ; and from the 
inner side of these rooms each has a door passing to 
the kitchen, or chief living room. This last apartment 



W.S. 16X10 



PIO \6X\*i 



SWILL 



WH. 30xlG 



W.R. 16x14 



B.9x8 



K. 



E. 9x6 



D 
9x6 



B R. 

3x8 



.. 



S.R. 16x15 



P. 16x15 



PORCH 



10 



XX XX> 



FLAW. 



BURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



77 





-- p 


y 9X14 




2.2.XI6 






T " 

1 8 X/5 







I 



CHAMBER PLAN. 



is 22x15 feet, with a broad fireplace containing a 
crane, hooks, and trammel, if required, and a spacious 
family oven affording those homely and primitive 
comforts still so dear to many of us who are not ready 
to concede that all the virtues of the present day are 
combined in a "perfection" cooking stove, and a 
"patent" heater; although there is a chance for these 
last, if they should be adopted into the peaceful atmos- 
phere of this kitchen. 

On one side of the kitchen, in rear of the stairs, is 
a bedroom, 9x8 feet, with a window in one corner. 
Adjoining that, is a buttery, dairy-room, or closet, 9x6 
feet, also having a window. At the inner end of the 
stairway is the cellar passage ; at the outer end is the 
chamber passage, landing above, in the highest part of 
the roof story. Opposite the chamber stairs is a door 
leading to the wash-room. Between the two windows, 
Dn the rear side of the kitchen, is a sink, with a waste 
pipe passing out through the wall. At the further 
corner a door opens into a snug bedroom 9x8 feet, 
lighted by a window in rear; and adjoining this is a 



78 RURAL ARCniTECTTJRE. 

side entry leading from the end door, 9x6 feet in area; 
thns making every room in the house accessible at 
once from the kitchen, and giving the greatest possible 
convenience in both living and house-work. 

The roof story is partitioned into convenient-sized 
bedrooms ; the ceiling running down the pitch of the 
roof to within two feet of the floor, unless they are cut 
short by inner partitions, as they are in the largest 
chamber, to give closets. The open area in the cen- 
ter, at the head of the stairs, is lighted by a small 
gable window inserted in the roof, at the rear, and 
serves as a lumber room ; or, if necessary, a bed may 
occupy a part of it. 

In rear of the main dwelling is a building 44x16 
feet, occupied as a wash-room and wood-house. The 
wash-room floor is let down eight inches below the 
kitchen, and is 16x14 feet, in area, lighted by a 
window on each side, with a chimney, in which is set 
a boiler, and fireplace, if desired, and a sink in the 
corner adjoining. This room is 7i feet in height. A 
door passes from this wash-room into the wood-house, 
which is 30x16 feet, open iu front, with a water-closet 
in the further corner. 

The cellar is 7i feet in height and is the whole 
size of the house, laid with good stone wall, in lime 
mortar, with a flight of steps leading outside, in rear 
of the kitchen, and two or more sash-light windows at 
the ends. If not in a loose, gravelly, or sandy soil, the 
cellar should be kept dry by a drain leading out on to 
lower ground. 

The building beyond, and adjoining the wood house, 



BT7KAL ARCHITECTURE. 79 

contains a swill-house 16x12 feet, with a window in 
one end; a chimney and boiler in one corner, with 
storage for swill barrels, grain, meal, potatoes, &c., 
for feeding the pigs, which are in the adjoining pen of 
same size, with feeding trough, place for sleeping, &c., 
and having a window in one end and a door in the 
rear, leading to a yard. 

Adjoining these, in front, is a workshop and tool- 
house, 16x10 feet, with a window at the end, and an 
entrance door near the wood house. In this is a join- 
er's work-bench, a chest of working tools, such as saw, 
hammer, augers, &c., &c., necessary for repairing im- 
plements, doing little rough jobs, or other wood work, 
&c., which every farmer ought to do for himself; and 
also storing his hoes, axes, shovels, hammers, and other 
small farm implements. In this room he will find 
abundant rainy-day employment in repairing his uten- 
sils of various kinds, making his beehives, hencoops, 
&c., &c. Next to this is the wagon-house, 16x14 feet, 
with broad doors at the end, and harness pegs around 
the walls. 

The posts of this building are 10 feet high ; the rooms 
eight feet high, and a low chamber overhead for storing 
lumber, grain, and other articles, as may be required. 
Altogether, these several apartments make a very com- 
plete and desirable accommodation to a man with the 
property and occupation for which it is intended. 

On one side and adjoining the house, should be the 
garden, the ciothes-yard, and the bee-house, which last 
should always stand in fall sight, and facing the most 
frequented room say the kitchen that they can be 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



seen daily during the swarming season, as those per- 
forming household duties may keep them in view. 



MISCELLANEOUS, 



In regard to the surroundings, and approach to this 
dwelling, they should be treated under the suggestions 
already given on these subjects. This is an exceed- 
ingly snug tenement, and everything around and about 
it should be of the same character. No pretension or 
frippery whatever. A neat garden, usefully, rather 
than ornamentally and profusely supplied ; a moderate 
court-yard in front; free access to the end door, from 
the main e very-day approach by vehicles not on the 
highway, but on the farm road or lane the business 
entrance, in fact ; which should also lead to the barns 
and sheds beyond, not far distant. Every feature 
should wear a most domestic look, and breathe an air 
of repose and content. Trees should be near, but not 
so near as to cover the house. A few shrubs of simple 
kind some standing roses a few climbing ones ; a 
syringa, a lilac, a snow ball, and a little patch or two 
of flowers near the front porch, and the whole express- 
ion is given ; just as one would^wish to look upon as a 
simple, unpretending habitation. 

It is not here proposed to give working plans, or 
estimates, to a nicety; or particular directions for 
building any design even, that we present. The mate- 
rial for construction best suited to the circumstances 
and locality of the proprietor must govern all those 
matters: and as good builders are in most cases at 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 81 

hand, who are competent to give estimates for the cost 
of any given plan, when the material for construction 
is once settled, the question of expense is readily fixed. 
The same sized house, with the same accommodation, 
may be made to cost fifty to one hundred per cent, 
over an economical estimate, by the increased style, or 
manner of its finish ; or it may be kept within bounds 
by a rigid adherence to the plan first adopted. 

In western ]S"ew York this house and attachments 
complete, the body of stone, the wood-house, wagon- 
house, <fec., of wood, may be built and well finished in 
a plain way for $1,500. If built altogether of wood, 
with grooved and matched vertical boarding, and bat- 
tens, the whole may be finished and painted for $800, 
to $1,200. For the lowest sum, the lumber and work 
would be of a rough kind, with a cheap wash to color 
it; but the latter amount would give good work, and a 
lasting coat of mineral paint both outside and within. 

As a tenant house on a farm of three, four, or even 
five hundred acres, where all who live in it are labor- 
ers in the field or household, this design may be most 
conveniently adopted. The family inhabiting it in 
winter may be well accommodated for sleeping under 
the main roof, while they can at all seasons take their 
meals, and be made comfortable in the several rooms. 
In the summer season, when a larger number of 
laborers are employed, the lofts of the carriage or 
wagon-house and work-shop may be occupied with beds, 
and thus a large share of the expense of house build- 
ing for a very considerable farm be saved. Luxury 
is a quality more or less consulted by every one who 



82 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

builds for his mon occupation on a farm, or elsewhere ; 
and the tendency in building is constantly to expand, to 
give a higher finish, and in iact, to over-build. Indeed, 
if we were to draw the balance, on our old farms, be- 
tween scantily-accommodated houses, and houses with 
needless room in them, the latter would preponderate. 
Not that these latter houses either are too good, or too 
convenient for the purpose for which they were built, 
but they have too much room, and that room badly 
appropriated and arranged. 

On a farm proper, the whole establishment is a 
workshop. The shop out of doors, we acknowledge, 
is not always dry, nor always warm ; but it is exceed- 
ingly well aired and lighted, and a place where indus- 
trious people dearly love to labor. Within doors it is 
a work-shop too. There is always labor and occupation 
for the family, in the general business of the farm; 
therefore but little room is wanted for either luxury or 
leisure, and the farm house should be fully occupied, 
with the exception, perhaps, of a single room on the 
main floor, (and that not a large one,) for some regular 
business purpose. All these accommodated, and the re- 
quirements of the house are ended. Owners of rented 
farms should reflect, too, that expensive houses on their 
estates entail expensive repairs, and that continually. 
Many tenants are careless of highly-finished houses. 
Not early accustomed to them, they misappropriate, 
perhaps, the best rooms in the house, and pay little 
attention to the purposes for which the owner designed 
them, or to the manner of using them. It is therefore 
a total waste of money to build a house on a tenant 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 83 

estate anything beyond the mere comfortable wants of 
the family occupying it, and to furnish the room neces- 
sary for the accommodation of the crops, stock, and 
farm furniture, in the barns and other out-buildings 
all in a cheap, tidy, yet substantial way. 

So, too, with the grounds for domestic purposes 
around the house. A kitchen garden, sufficient to 
grow the family vegetables a few plain fruits a 
posey bed or two for the girls and the story is told. 
Give a larger space for these things anything in- 
deed, for elegance and ten to one, the plow is intro- 
duced, a corn or potato patch is set out, field culture is 
adopted, and your choice grounds are torn up, defaced, 
and sacrificed to the commonest uses. 

Notwithstanding these drawbacks, a cheerful, home- 
expression may be given, and should be given to the 
homestead, in the character and construction of the 
buildings, be they ever so rough and homely. We 
can call to mind many instances of primitive houses 
log cabins even built when none better could be had, 
that presented a most comfortable and life-enjoying 
picture residences once, indeed, of those who swayed 
"the applause of listening senates," but under the 
hands of taste, and a trifle of labor, made to look 
comfortable, happy, and sufficient. We confess, there- 
fore, to a profound veneration, if not affection, for the 
humble farm house, as truly American in character; 
and which, with a moderate display of skill, may be 
made equal to the main purposes of life and enjoyment 
for all such as do not aspire to a high display, and 
who are content to make the most of moderate means. 



84 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



DESIGN II. 

This is the plan of a house and out-buildings based 
chiefly on one which we built of wood some years since 
on a farm of our own, and which, in its occupation, 
has proved to be one of exceeding convenience to the 
purposes intended. As a farm business house, we 
have not known it excelled; nor in the ease and facility 
of doing up the house-work within it, do we know a 
better. It has a subdued, quiet, unpretending look; 
yet will accommodate a family of a dozen workmen, 
besides the females engaged in the household work, 
with perfect convenience ; or if occupied by a farmer 
with but his own family around him, ample room is 
afforded them for a most comfortable mode of life, and 
sufficient for the requirements of a farm of two, to 
three or four hundred acres. 

This house is, in the main body, 36x22 feet, one 
and a half stories high, with a projection on the rear 
34x16 feet, for the kitchen and its offices; and a 
still further addition to that, of 26x18 feet, for wash- 
room. The main body of the house is 14 feet high to 
1 he plates ; the lower rooms are 9 feet high ; the roof 
has a pitch of 35 from a horizontal line, giving par- 
tially-upright chambers in the main building, and roof 
lodging rooms in the rear. The rear, or kitchen part, 



KUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 87 

is one story high, with 10 feet posts, and such pitch of 
roof (which last runs at right angles to the main body, 
and laps on to the main roof,) as will carry the peak 
up to the same air line. This addition should retreat 
6 inches from the line of the main building, on the side 
given in the design, and 18 inches on the rear. The 
rooms on this kitchen floor are 8 feet high, leaving one 
foot above the upper floor, under the roof, as a cham- 
ber garret, or lumber-room, as may be required. Be- 
yond this, in the rear, is the other extension spoken 
of, with posts 9 feet high, for a buttery, closet, or dairy, 
or all three combined, and a wash-room ; the floor of 
which is on a level with the last, and the roof running 
in the same direction, and of the same pitch. In front 
of this wash-room, where not covered by the wood- 
house, is an open porch, 8 feet wide and 10 feet long, 
the roof of which runs out at a less angle than the 
others say 30 from a horizontal line. Attached to 
this is the wood-house, running off by way of L, at 
right angles, 36x16 feet, of same height as the wash- 
room. 

Adjoining the wood-house, on the same front line, is 
a building 50x20 feet, with 12 feet posts, occupied 
as a workshop, wagon-house, stable, and store-room, 
with a lean-to on the last of 15x10 feet, for a pig- 
gery. The several rooms in this building are 8 feet 
high, affording a good lumber room over the work- 
shop, and hay storage over the wagon-house and stable. 
Over the wagon-house is a gable, with a blind window 
swinging on hinges, for receiving hay, thus relieving 
the long, uniform line of roof, and affording ample 






88 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

accommodation on each side to a pigeon-house or dove- 
cote, if required. 

The style of this establishment is of plain Italian, or 
bracketed, and may be equally applied to stone, brick, 
or wood. The roofs are broad, and protect the walls 
by their full projection over them, 25 feet. The small 
gable in the front roof of the main dwelling relieves it 
of its otherwise straight uniformity, and affords a high 
door-window opening on to the deck of the veranda, 
which latter should be 8 or 10 feet in width. The 
shallow windows, also, over the wings of the veranda 
give it a more cheerful expression. The lower end 
windows of this part of the house are hooded, or shel- 
tered by a cheap roof, which gives them a snug and 
most comfortable appearance. The veranda may ap- 
pear more ornamental than the plain character of the 
house requires ; but any superfluous work upon it may 
be omitted, and the style of finish conformed to the 
other. The veranda roof is flatter than that of the 
house, but it may be made perfectly tight by closer 
shingling, and paint; while the deck or platform in 
the centre may be roofed with zinc, or tin, and a coat 
of sanded paint laid upon it. The front chimney is 
plain, yet in keeping with the general style of the 
house, and may be made of ordinary bricks. The two 
parts of the chimney, as they appear in the front rooms, 
are drawn together as they pass through the chamber 
above, and become one at the roof. The kitchen chim- 
neys pass up through the peaks of their respective 
roofs, and should be in like character with the othe 




BAMBK& FLAN. 



OKOUND FLAW. 



90 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door of this house opens into a small entry 
or hall, 9x6 feet, which is lighted by a low sash of 
glass over the front door. A door leads into a room 
on each side; and at the inner end of the hall is a 
recess between the two chimneys of the opposite rooms, 
in which may be placed a table or broad shelf to 
receive hats and coats. On the left is a parlor 22x15 
feet, lighted on one side by a double window, and 
in front by a single plain one. The fireplace is cen- 
trally placed on one side of the room, in the middle of 
the house. On one side of the fireplace is a closetj three 
feet deep, with shelves, and another closet at the inner 
end of the room, near the kitchen door ; or this closet 
may be dispensed with for the use of this parlor, and 
given up to enlarge the closet which is attached to 
the bedroom. Another door opens directly into the 
kitchen. This parlor is 9 feet high between joints. 
The sitting-room is opposite to the parlor, 19x15 feet, 
and lighted and closeted in nearly the same manner, 
as will be seen by referring to the floor plan. 

The kitchen is the grand room of this house. It is 
24x16 feet in area, having an ample fireplace, with its 
hooks and trammels, and a spacious oven by its side. 
It is lighted by a double window at one end, and a 
single window near the fireplace. At one end of this 
kitchen is a most comfortable and commodious fam- 
ily bedroom, 13x10 feet, with a large closet in one 
corner, and lighted by a window in the side. Two 



EUEAL ARCHTTECTTJRE. 91 

windows may be inserted if wanted. A passage leads 
by the side of the oven to a sink-room, or recess, be- 
hind the chimney, with shelves to dry dishes on, and 
lighted by the half of a double window, which accom- 
modates with its other half the dairy, or closet adjoin- 
ing. A door also opens from this recess into the closet 
and dairy, furnished with broad shelves, that part of 
which, next the kitchen, is used for dishes, cold meat 
and bread cupboards, &c. ; while the part of it adjoin- 
ing the window beyond, is used for milk. This room is 
14x6 feet, besides the L running up next to the kitchen, 
of 6x4 feet. From the kitchen also opens a closet 
into the front part of the house for any purpose needed. 
This adjoins the parlor, and sitting-room, closets. In 
the passage to the sitting-room also opens the stairway 
leading to the chambers, and beneath, at the other end 
of it, next the outside wall, is a flight leading down 
cellar. The cellar is excavated under the whole house, 
being 36x22, and 34x16 feet, with glass windows, one 
light deep by four wide, of 8x10 glass; and an outer 
door, and flight of steps outside, under either the sitting- 
room or kitchen windows, as may be most convenient. 
A door opens, also, from the kitchen, into a passage 4 
feet wide and 12 feet long leading to the wash-room, 
18x16 feet, and by an outside door, through this passage 
to the porch. In this passage may be a small window 
to give it light. 

In the wash-room are two windows. A chimney at the 
far end accommodates a boiler or two, and a fireplace, 
if required. A sink stands ad joining the chimney. A 
flight of stairs, leading to a garret over head on one side. 



92 RURAL AECHITECTUEE. 

and to the kitchen chamber on the other, stands next 
the dairy, into which last a door also leads. In this 
wash-room may be located the cooking stove in warm 
weather, leaving the main kitchen for a family and eat- 
ing room. A door also leads from the wash-room into 
the wood-house. 

The wood-house stands lower than the floor of th 
wash-room, from which it falls, by steps. This is large, 
because a plentiful store of wood is needed for a dwell- 
ing of this character. If the room be not all wanted 
for such purpose, a part of it may devoted to other 
necessary uses, there seldom being too much shelter of 
this kind on a farm ; through the rear wall of this wood- 
house leads a door into the garden, or clothes-yard, as 
the case may be ; and at its extreme angle is a water 
closet, 6x4: feet, by way of lean-to, with a hipped 
roof, 8 feet high, running off from both the wood-house 
and workshop. This water-closet is lighted by a slid- 
ing sash window. 

On to the wood-house, in a continuous front line, joins 
the workshop, an indispensable appendage to farm 
convenience. This has a flight of stairs leading to the 
lumber-room above. For the furnishing of this apart- 
ment, see description of Design I. Next to the work- 
house is the wagon and tool-house, above which is the 
hay loft, also spread over the stable adjoining ; in which 
last are stalls for a pair of horses, which may be re- 
quired for uses other than the main labors of the farm 
to run to market, carry the family to church, or else- 
where. A pair of horses for such purposes should 
always be kept near the house. The horse-stalls 



KUKAL ARCHITECTUBE. 93 

occupy a space of 10x12 feet, with racks and feeding 
boxes. The plans of these will be described hereafter. 
The door leading out from these stalls is 5 feet wide, 
and faces the partition, so that each horse may be led 
out or in at an easy angle from them. Beyond the 
stalls is a passage 4 feet wide, leading to a store-room 
or area, from which a flight of rough stairs leads to the 
hay loft above. Beyond this room, in which is the oat 
bin for the horses, is a small piggery, for the conven- 
ience of a pig or two, which are always required to con- 
sume the daily wash and offal of the house ; and not 
for the general pork stock of the farm ; which, on one 
of this size, may be expected to require more commo- 
dious quarters. 

The chamber plan of this house is commodious, fur- 
nishing one large room and three smaller ones. The 
small chamber leading to the deck over the porch, may, 
or may not be occupied as a sleeping room. The 
small one near the stairs may contain a single bed, or 
be occupied as a large clothes-closet. Through this, a 
door leads into the kitchen chamber, which may serve 
as one, or more laborers' bed-chambers. They may be 
lighted by one or more windows in the rear gable. 

If more convenient to the family, the parlor and sit- 
ting-room, already described, may change their occu- 
pation, and one substituted for the other. 

The main business approach to this house should be 
by a lane, or farm road opening on the side next the 
stable and wagon-house. The yard, in front of these last 
aamed buildings, should be separated from the lawn, 
or front door-yard of the dwelling. The establishment 



94 KUEAL AKCHITEOTDRE. 

should stand some distance back from the traveled 
highway, and be decorated with such trees, shrubbery, 
and cultivation, as the taste of the owner may direct. 
No general rules or directions can be applicable to this 
design beyond what have already been given ; and the 
subject must be treated as circumstances may suggest. 
The unfrequented side of the house should, however, be 
flanked with a garden, either ornamental, or fruit and 
vegetable ; as buildings of this character ought to com- 
mand a corresponding share of attention with the 
grounds by which they are surrounded. 

This house will appear equally well built of wood, 
brick, or stone. Its cost, according to materials, or 
finish, may be $1,000 or $1,500. The out-buildings at- 
tached, will add $400 to $600, with the same conditions 
as to finish ; but the whole may be substantially and 
well built of either stone, brick, or wood, where each 
may be had at equal convenience, for $2,000 in the in- 
terior of New York. Of course, it is intended to do 
all the work plain, and in character for tl e occupation 
to which it is intended. 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 95 



MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS. 

At this point of our remarks a word or two may be 
offered on the general subject of inside finish to farm 
houses, which may be applicable more or less to any 
one, or all of the designs that may come under our ob- 
servation ; therefore what is here said, may be applied 
at large. Different sections of the United States have 
their own several local notions, or preferences as to the 
mode of finish to their houses and out-buildings, accord- 
ing to climate, education, or other circumstances. In 
all these matters neither taste, fashion, nor climate 
should be arbitrary. The manner of finish may be 
various, without any departure from truth or propri- 
ety always keeping in mind the object for which it is 
intended. The material for a country house should be 
strong, and durable, and the work simple in its details, 
beyond that for either town or suburban houses. It 
should be strong, for the reason that the interior of the 
farm house is used for purposes of industry, in finishing 
up and perfecting the labors of the farm ; labors indis- 
pensable too, and in amount beyond the ordinary house- 
keeping requirements of a family who have little to do 
but merely to live, and make themselves comfortable. 
The material should be durable, because the distance 
at which the farm house is usually located from the 



96 KUKAL A-RCHITECTUKE. 

residences of building mechanics, renders it particu- 
larly troublesome and expensive to make repairs, and 
alterations. The work should be simple, because cheap- 
er in the first place, in construction, and finish ; quite 
as appropriate and satisfactory in appearance ; and de- 
manding infinitely less labor and pains to care for, and 
protect it afterward. Therefore all mouldings, archi- 
traves, chisel-work, and gewgawgery in interior finish 
should be let alone in the living and daily occupied 
rooms of the house. If, to a single parlor, or spare 
bedchamber a little ornamental work be permitted, let 
even that be in moderation, and just enough to teach 
the active mistress and her daughters what a world of 
scrubbing and elbow work they have saved themselves 
in the enjoyment of a plainly-finished house, instead 
of one full of gingerbread work and finery. None 
but the initiated can tell the affliction that chiseled 
finishing entails on housekeepers in the spider, fly, and 
other insect lodgment which it invites frequently the 
cause of more annoyance and daily disquietude in 
housekeeping, because unnecessary, than real griefs 
from which we may not expect to escape. Bases, cas- 
ings, sashes, doors all should be plain, and painted 
or stained a quiet russet color a color natural to the 
woods used for the finish, if it can be, showing, in their 
wear, as little of dust, soiling, and fly dirt as possible. 
There is no poetry about common housekeeping. Cook- 
ing, house-cleaning, washing, scrubbing, sweeping, are 
altogether matter-of-fact duties, and usually considered 
work, not recreation ; and these should all be made 
easy of performance, and as seldom to be done as 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 97 

possible; although, the first item always was, and al- 
ways will be, and the last item should be, an every-day 
vocation for somebody; and the manner of inside finish 
to a house has a great deal to do with all these labors. 
In a stone, or brick house, the inside walls should 
be firred off for plastering. This may be done either 
by " plugging," that is, driving a plug of wood strongly 
into the mortar courses, into which the firring should 
be nailed, or by laying a strip of thin board in the mor- 
tar course, the entire length of each wall. This is better 
than Hocks laid in for such purpose, because it is ef- 
fectually bound by the stone, or brick work ; whereas, , 
a block may get loose by shrinking, but the nails which 
hold the firring to the plug, or to the thin strip of board 
will split and wedge it closer to the mason work of the 
outside wall. This is an important item. It makes 
close work too, and leaves no room for rats, mice, or 
other vermin ; and as it admits a space no matter 
how thin so that no outside damp from the walls can 
communicate into, or through the inner plastering, it 
answers all purposes. The inside, and partition walls 
should be of coarse, strong mortar, floated off as smooth- 
ly as may be, not a hard finish, which is fine, and 
costly; and then papered throughout for the better 
rooms, and the commonly-used rooms whitewashed. 
Paper gives a most comfortable look to the rooms, more 
so than paint, and much less expensive, while nothing is 
so sweet, tidy, and cheerful to the working rooms of the 
house as a lime wash, either white, or softened down 
with some agreeable tint, such as light blue, green, drab, 
fawn, or russet, to give the shade desired, and for which 



98 BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 

every professional painter and whitewasher in the vi- 
cinity, can furnish a proper recipe applicable to the 
place and climate. On such subjects we choose to 
prescribe, rather than to play the apothecary by giv- 
ing any of the thousand and one recipes extant, for the 
composition. 

Our remarks upon the strength and durability of 
inaterial in house-building do not apply exclusively to 
brick and stone. Wood is included also ; and of this, 
there is much difference in the kind. Sound white 
oak, is, perhaps the best material for the heavy frame- 
work of any house or out-building, and when to be 
had at a moderate expense, we would recommend it in 
preference to any other. If white oak cannot be had, 
the other varieties of oak, or chesnut are the next best. 
In light frame-timbers, such as studs, girts, joists, or 
rafters, oak is inclined to spring and warp, and we 
would prefer hemlock, or chesnut, which holds a nail 
equally as well, or, in its absence, pine, (which holds a 
nail badly,) whitewood, or black walnut. The outside 
finish to a wooden house, may be lighter than in one of 
stone or brick. The wood work on the outside of the 
latter should always be heavy, and in character with 
the walls, giving an air of firmness and stability to the 
whole structure. No elaborate carving, or beadwork 
should be permitted on the outside work of a country 
house at all ; and only a sufficient quantity of ornamen- 
tal tracery of any kind, to break the monotony of a 
plainness that would otherwise give it a formal, or un- 
couth expression, and relieve it of what some would 
consider a pasteboard look. A farm house, in fact, of 



RURAL, ARCHITECTURE. 99 

any degree, either cheap 01 expensive, should wear the 
same appearance as a well-dressed person of either sex ; 
so that a stranger, not looking at them for the purpose 
of inspecting their garb, should, after an interview, be 
unable to tell what particular sort of dress they wore, 
so perfectly in keeping was it with propriety, 

In the design now under discussion, a cellar is made 
under the whole body of the house ; and this cellar is 
a shallow one, so far as being sunk into the ground is 
concerned, say 5 \ feet, leaving 2} feet of cellar wall 
above ground 8 feet in all. A part of the wall above 
ground should be covered by the excavated earth, and 
sloped off to a level with the surrounding surface. A 
commodious, well-lighted, and well-ventilated cellar is 
one of the most important apartments of the farm house. 
It should, if the soil be compact, be well drained from 
some point or corner within the walls into a lower level 
outside, to which point within, the whole floor surface 
should incline, and the bottom be floored with water- 
lime cement. This will make it hard, durable, and dry. 
It may then be washed and scrubbed off as easily as 
an upper floor. If the building site be high, and in a 
gravelly, or sandy soil, neither drain nor flooring will 
be required. The cellar may be used for the storage 
of root crops, apples, meats, and household vegetables. 
A partitioned room will accommodate either a summer 
or a winter dairy, if not otherwise provided, and a 
multitude of conveniences may be made of it in all well 
arranged farmeries. But in all cases the cellar should 
be well lighted, ventilated, and dry. Even the ash- 
house and smoke-house may be made in it with perfect 



100 KURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

convenience, by brick or stone partitions, and the smoke- 
house ilue be earned up into one of the chimney flues 
above, and thus make a more snug and compact ar- 
rangement than to have separate buildings for those 
objects. A wash-room, in which, also, the soap may be 
made, the tallow and lard tried up, and other extraor- 
dinary labor when fire heat is to be used, may properly 
be made in a cellar, particularly when on a sloping 
ground, and easy of access to the ground level on one 
side. But, as a general rule, such room is better on 
a level with the main floor of the dwelling, and there 
are usually sufficient occupations for the cellar without 
them. 

All cellar walls should be at least 18 inches thick, 
for even a wooden house, and from that to 2 feet for 
a stone or brick one, and well laid in strong lime-mor- 
tar. Unmortared cellar walls are frequently laid under 
wooden buildings, and pointed with lime-mortar inside ; 
but this is sometimes dug out by rats, and is apt to 
crumble and fall out otherwise. A com/plete cellar 
wall should be thoroughly laid in mortar. 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 103 



DESIGN III. 

We here present the reader with a substantial, plain, 
yet highly-respectable stone or brick farm house, of 
the second .class, suitable for an estate of three, to five 
hundred acres, and accommodation for a family of a 
dozen or more persons. The style is mixed rural 
Gothic, Italian, and bracketed; yet in keeping with 
the character of the farm, and the farmer's standing 
and occupation. 

The main body of this house is 42x24 feet on the 
ground, and one and three quarter stories high the 
chambers running two or three feet into the roof, as 
choice or convenience may direct. The roof has a 
pitch of 30 to 40 from a horizontal line, and broadly 
spread over the walls, say two and a half feet, showing 
the ends of the rafters, bracket fashion. .The chimneys 
pass out through the peak of the roof, where the hips 
of what would otherwise be the gables, connect with 
the long sides of the roof covering the front and rear. 
On the long front is partly seen, in the perspective, a 
portico, 16x10 feet not the chief entrance front, but 
rather a side front, practically, which leads into a lawn 
or garden, as may be most desirable, and from which 
the best view from the house is commanded. Over 
this porch is a small gable running into the roof, to 
break its monotony, in which is a door- window leading 
from the upper hall on to the deck of the porch. This 



104: BTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

gable has the same finish as the main roof, by brackets. 
The chamber windows are two-thirds or three-quarters 
the size of the lower ones; thus showing the upper 
story not full height below the plates, but running two 
to four feet into the garret. The rear wing, containing 
the entrance or business front, is 24x32 feet, one and 
a half stories high, with a pitch of roof not less than 
35, and spread over the walls both at the eaves and 
gable, in the same proportion as the roof to the main 
body. In front of this is a porch or veranda eight feet 
wide, with a low, hipped roof. In the front and rear 
roofs of this wing is a dormar window, to light the 
chambers. The gable to this wing is bold, and gives 
it character by the breadth of its roof over the walls, 
and the strong brackets by which it is supported. The 
chimney is thrown up strong and boldly at the point 
of the roof, indicating the every-day uses of the fire- 
places below, which, although distinct and wide apart 
in their location on the ground floors, are drawn to- 
gether in the chambers, thus showing only one escape 
through the roof. 

The wood-house in the rear of the wing has a roof 
of the same character, and connects with the long 
building in the rear, which has the same description 
of roof, but hipped at one end. That end over the 
workshop, and next the wood-house, shows a bold 
gable like the wing of the house, and affords room and 
light to the lumber room over the shop, and also gives 
variety and relief to the otherwise too great sameness of 
roof-appearance on the further side of the establishment. 




GROUND PLAK. 





CHAMBER 



106 EURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

As has been remarked, the main entrai ce front to 
this house is from the wing veranda, from which a well 
finished and sizeable door leads into the principal hall, 
24x8 feet in area, and lighted by a full-sized window 
at the front end. Opposite the entrance door is the 
door leading into the parlor ; and farther along is the 
staircase, under the upper landing of which a door 
leads into a dining or sitting-room, as may be deter- 
mined. This hall is 10 feet high, as are all the rooms 
of this lower main story. In the chimney, which 
adjoins the parlor side of this hall, may be inserted a 
thimble for a hall stovepipe, if this method of warming 
should be adopted. The parlor, into which a door 
leads from the hall, is 18x16 feet, with two windows 
on the side, shown in perspective, and one on the front 
facing the lawn, or garden. It has also a fireplace 
near the hall door. At the further angle is a door 
leading to an entry or passage on to the portico. E is 
the entry just mentioned, six feet square, and lighted 
by a short sash, one light deep, over the outside door. 
This portico may be made a pleasant summer afternoon 
and evening resort for the family, by which the occu- 
pied rooms connect with the lawn or garden, thus 
adding to its retired and private character. 

Opposite the parlor, on the other side of this entry, 
a door leads into a room 18x12 feet, which may be 
occupied as a family bedroom, library, or small sitting- 
room. This is lighted by two windows, and has a 
closet of 6x5 feet. A fireplace is on the inner side of 



SUEAL AKCniTECTtJRE. 107 

this room ; and near to that, a door connects with a 
dining-room of the same size, having a window in one 
end, and a fireplace, and closet of the same size as the 
last. Through the rear wall is a door leading into a 
pantry, which also communicates with the kitchen ; 
and another door leads to the hall, and from the hall, 
under the staircases, (which, at that point, are suffi- 
ciently high for the purpose,) is a passage leading to 
the kitchen. 

Under the wing veranda, near the point of intersec- 
tion of the wing with the main body of the house, is 
an every-day outer door, leading into a small entry, 
6x5 feet, and lighted by a low, one-sash window over 
the door. By another door, this leads to the kitchen, 
or family room, which is lighted by three windows. 
An ample fireplace, with oven, &c., accommodates 
this room at the end. A closet, 7x5 feet, also stands 
next to the entry ; and beyond that, an open passage, 
to the left, leading out under the front hall stairs to the 
rooms of the main building. A door also leads from 
that passage into a lest pantry, for choice crockery, 
sweetmeats, and tea-table comforts. Another door, 
near the last, leads into a dairy or milk-room, 9x8 feet, 
beyond the passage ; in which last, also, may be placed 
a tier of narrow shelves. This milk, or dairy-room, is 
lighted by a window in the end, and connects also, by a 
door in the side, with the outer kitchen, or wash-room. 
Next to this milk-room door, in the front kitchen, is 
another door leading down cellar; and through this 
door, passing by the upper, broad stair of the flight of 

cellar steps, is another door into the wash-room. At 
5* 






1 

108 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

the farther angle of the kitchen is still another door, 
opening into a passage four feet wide ; and, in that pas- 
sage, a door leading up a flight of stairs into the wing 
chambers. This passage opens into the back kitchen, 
or wash-room, 16x16 feet in area, and lighted by two 
windows, one of which looks into the wood-house. In 
this wash-room is a chimney with boilers and fireplace, 
as may be required. The cellar and chamber stairs, 
and the milk-room are also accessible direct, by doors 
leading from this wash-room. 

The chamber plan will be readily understood, and 
requires no particular description. The space over the 
wing may be partitioned off according to the plan, or 
left more open for the accommodation of the " work 
folks," as occasion may demand. But, as this dwell- 
ing is intended for substantial people, " well to do in 
the world," and who extend a generous hospitality to 
their friends, a liberal provision of sleeping chambers 
is given to the main body of the house. The parlor 
chamber, which is the best, or spare one, is 18x16 
feet, with roomy side-closets. Besides this, are other 
rooms for the daughters Sally, and Nancy, and Fanny, 
and possibly Mary and Elizabeth who want their 
own chambers, which they keep so clean and tidy, 
with closets full of nice bedclothes, table linen, towels, 
&c., fec., for certain events not yet whispered of, but 
quite sure to come round. And then there are Fred- 
erick, and Robert, and George, fine stalwart boys 
coming into manhood, intending to be " somebody in 
the world," one day or another; they must have their 
rooms and good ones too; for, if any people are to 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 109 

be well lodged, why not those who toil for it? All 
such accommodation every farm house of this character 
should afford. And we need not go far, or look sharp, 
to see the best men and the best women in our state 
and nation graduating from the wholesome farm house 
thus tidily and amply provided. How delightfully 
look the far-off mountains, or the nearer plains, or 
prairies, from the lawn porch of this snug farm house ! 
The distant lake; the shining river, singing away 
through the valley; or the wimpling brook, stealing 
through the meadow ! Aye, enjoy them all, for they 
are God's best, richest gifts, and we are made to love 
them. 

The wood-house strikes off from the back kitchen, 
retreating two feet from its gable wall, and is 36x14 
feet in size. A bathing room may be partitioned off 
8x6 feet, on the rear corner next the wash-room, if 
required, although not laid down in the plan. At the 
further end is the water-closet, 6x4 feet. Or, if the 
size and convenience of the family require it, a part of 
the wood-house may be partitioned off for a wash-room, 
from which a chimney may pass up through the peak 
of the roof. If so, carry it up so high that it will be 
above the eddy that the wind may make in passing 
over the adjoining wing, not causing it to smoke from 
that cause. 

At the far end of the wood-house is the workshop and 
tool-house, 18x16 feet, lighted by two windows, and 
a door to enter it from beneath the wood-house. Over 
this, is the lumber and store-room. 

Next to this is the swill-room and pigsty for the 



110 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

house pigs, as described in the last design ; and over 
it a loft for farm seeds, small grains, and any other 
storage required. 

Adjoining this is the wagon and carriage-house ; and 
above, the hayloft, stretching, also, partly over the 
stable which stands next, with two stalls, 12x5 feet 
each, with a flight of .stairs leading to the loft, in the 
passage next the door. In this loft are swinging win- 
dows, to let in hay for the horses. 

This completes the household establishment, and we 
leave the surroundings to the correct judgment and 
good taste of the proprietor to complete, as its position, 
and the variety of objects with which it may be con- 
nected, requires. 

Stone and brick we have mentioned as the proper 
materials for this house ; but it may be also built of 
wood, if more within the means and limits of the 
builder. There should be no pinching in its propor- 
tions, but every part carried out in its full breadth and 
effect. 

The cost of the whole establishment may be from 
$2,000, to $3,000 ; depending somewhat upon the ma- 
terial used, and the finish put upon it. The first-named 
sum would build the whole in an economical and plain 
manner, while the latter would complete it amply in 
its details. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. Ill 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

It may be an objection in the minds of some persons 
to the various plans here submitted, that we have con- 
nected the out-buildings immediately with the offices 
of the dwelling itself. We are well aware that such 
is not always usual ; but many years observation have 
convinced us, that in their use and occupation, such 
connection is altogether the most convenient and eco- 
nomical. The only drawback is in the case of fire; 
which, if it occur in any one building, the whole estab- 
lishment is liable to be consumed. This objection is 
conceded ; but we take it, that it is the business of 
every one not able to be his own insurer, to have his 
buildings insured by others ; and the additional cost of 
this insurance is not a tithe of what the extra expense 
of time, labor, and exposure is caused to the family by 
having the out-buildings disconnected, and at a fire- 
proof distance from each other. There has, too, in the 
separation of these out-buildings, (we do not now speak 
of barns, and houses for the stock, and the farm work 
proper,) from the main dwelling, crept into the con- 
struction of such dwellings, by modern builders, some 
things, which in a country establishment, particularly, 
ought never to be there, such as privies, or water-closets^ 
as they are more genteelly called. These last, in our esti- 
mation, have no business in & farmer's house. They are 
an effeminacy, only, and introduced by city life. An 
appendage they should be, but separated to some dis- 
tance from the living rooms, and accessible by sheltered 



112 BUBAL ABCHITEOTUEE. 

passages to them. The wood-house should adjoin the 
outer kitchen, because the fuel should always be handy, 
and the outer kitchen, or wash-room is a sort of slop- 
room, of necessity ; and the night wood, and that for the 
morning fires may be deposited in it for immediate use. 
The workshop, and small tool-house naturally comes 
next to that, as being chiefly used in stormy weather. 
Next to this last, would, more conveniently, come the 
carriage or wagon-house, and of course a stable for a 
horse or two for family use, always accessible at night, 
and convenient at unseasonable hours for farm labor. 
In the same close neighborhood, also, should be a small 
pigsty, to accommodate a pig or two, to eat up the 
kitchen slops from the table, refuse vegetables, parings, 
dishwater, &c., &c., which could not well be carried to 
the main piggery of the farm, unless the old-fashioned 
filthy mode of letting the hogs run in the road, and a 
trough set outside the door-yard fence, as seen in some 
parts of the country, were adopted. A pig can always 
be kept, and fatted in three or four months, from the 
wash of the house, with a little grain, in any well-reg- 
ulated farmer's family. A few fowls may also be kept 
in a convenient hen-house, if desired, without offence 
all constituting a part of the household economy of the 
place. 

These out-buildings too, give a comfortable, domes- 
tic look to the whole concern. Each one shelters and 
protects the other, and gives an air of comfort and 
repose to the whole a family expression all round. 
What so naked and chilling to the feelings, as to see 
a country dwelling-house all perked up, by itself 



BUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 113 

standing, literally, out of doors, without any dependen- 
cies about it ? No, no. First should stand the house, 
the chief structure, in the foreground ; _appendant to 
that, the kitchen wing; next in grade, the wood-house; 
covering iii, also, the minor offices of the house. Then 
by way of setting up, partially on their own account, 
should come the workshop, carriage-house, and stable, 
as practically having a separate character, but still sub- 
ordinate to the house and its requirements ; and these 
too, may have their piggery and hen-house, by way of 
tapering off to the adjoining fence, which encloses a 
kitchen garden, or family orchard. Thus, each struc- 
ture is appropriate in its way and together, they 
form a combination grateful to the sight, as a complete 
lural picture. All objections, on account of filth or 
vermin, to this connection, may be removed by a cleanly 
keeping of the premises a removal of all offal imme- 
diately as it is made, and daily or weekly taking it on 
to the manure heaps of the barns, or depositing it at 
once on the grounds where it is required. In point of 
health, nothing is more congenial to sound physical 
condition than the occasional smell of a stable, or the 
breath of a cow, not within the immediate contiguity 
to the occupied rooms of the dwelling. On the score 
of neatness, therefore, as we have placed them, no bar 
can be raised to their adoption. 



114 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



DESIGN IY. 

This is perhaps a more ambitious house than either 
of the preceding, although it may be adapted to a 
domain of the same extent and value. It is plain and 
unpretending in appearance; yet, in its ample finish, 
and deeply drawn, sheltering eaves, broad veranda, 
and spacious out-buildings, may give accommodation 
to a larger family indulging a more liberal style of 
living than the last. 

By an error in the engraving, the main roof of the 
house is made to appear like a double, or gambrel- 
roof, breaking at the intersection of the gable, or hang- 
ing roof over the ends. This is not so intended. The 
roofs on each side are a straight line of rafters. The 
Swiss, or hanging style of gable-roof is designed to 
give a more sheltered effect to the elevation than to 
run the end walls to a peak in the point of the roof. 

By a defect in the drawing, the roof of the veranda 
is not sufficiently thrown over the columns. This roof 
should project at least one foot beyond them, so as 
to perfectly shelter the mouldings beneath from the 
weather, and conform to the style of the main roof of 
the house. 

The material of which it is built may be of either 
stone, brick, or wood, as the taste or convenience of 
the proprietor may suggest. The main building is 
44x36 feet, on the ground. The cellar wall may show 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 11Y 

18 to 24 inches above the ground, and be pierced by 
windows in each end, as shown in the plan. The 
height of the main walls may be two full stories below 
the roof plates, or the chambers may run a foot or two 
into the garret, at the choice of the builder, either of 
which arrangements may be permitted. 

The front door opens from a veranda 28 feet long by 
10 feet in depth, dropping eight inches from the door- 
sill. This veranda has a hipped roof, which juts over 
the columns in due proportion with the roof of the 
house over its walls. These columns are plain, with 
brackets, or braces from near their tops, sustaining the 
plate and finish of the roof above, which may be 
covered either with tin or zinc, painted, or closely 
shingled. 

The walls of the house may be 18 to 20 feet high 
below the plates ; the roof a pitch of 30 to 45, which 
will afford an upper garret, or store, or small sleeping 
rooms, if required; and the eaves should project two 
to three feet, as climate may demand, over the walls. 
A plain finish that is, ceiled underneath is shown 
in the design, but brackets on the ends of the rafters, 
beaded and finished, may be shown, if preferred. The 
gables are Swiss-roofed, or truncated, thus giving them 
a most sheltered and comfortable appearance, particu- 
larly in a northerly climate. The small gable in front 
relieves the roof of its monotony, and affords light to 
the central garret. The chimneys are carried out with 
partition flues, and may be topped with square caps, 
as necessity or taste may demand. 

Ketreating three feet from the kitchen side of the 



118 BUBAL AECHITECTUBE. 

house runs, at right angles, a wing 30x18 feet, one and 
a half stories high, with a veranda eight feet wide in 
front. Next in rear of this, continues a wood-house, 
30x18 feet, one story high, with ten feet posts, and 
open in front, the ground level of which is 18 inches 
below the floor of the wing to which it is attached. 
The roof of these two is of like character with that of 
the main building. 

Adjoining this wood-house, and at right angles with 
it, is a building 68x18 feet, projecting two feet outside 
the line of wood-house and kitchen. This building is 
one and a half stories high, with 12 feet posts, and roof 
in the same style and of equal pitch as the others. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door from the veranda of the house opens 
into a hall, 18x8 feet, and 11 feet high, amply lighted 
by sash windows on the sides, and over the door. From, 
the rear of this hall runs a flight of easy stairs, into the 
upper or chamber hall. On one side of the lower hall, 
a door leads into a parlor, 18 feet square, and 11 feet 
high, lighted by three windows, and warmed by an 
open stove, or fireplace, the pipe passing into a chim- 
ney flue in the rear. A door passes from this parlor 
into a rear passage, or entry, thus giving it access to 
the kitchen and rear apartments. At the back end of 
the front hall, a door leads into the rear passage and 
kkchen; and on the side opposite the parlor, a door 
opens into the sitting or family room, 18x16 feet in 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



119 



area, having an open fireplace, and three windows. On 
the hall side of this room, a door passes into the 
kitchen, 22x16 feet, and which may, in case the re- 
quirements of the family demand it, be made the 
chief family or living room, and the last one described 
converted into a library. In this kitchen, which is 



GKOUND PLAN. 



20IX 
PIG 

"20 Q 

5 WILL MOM 


H 10 XO 


WACCOH H 
18 X 18 


I? 


WORK f, 
18 X 12 


STAB 

12 X 




120 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 




CHAMBKB PLAX. 



lighted by two windows, is a liberal open fireplace, with 
an ample oven by its side, and a sink in the outer cor- 
ner. A flight of stairs, also, leads to the rear chambers 
above ; and a corresponding flight, under them, to the 
cellar below. A door at each end of these stairs, leads 
into the back entry of the house, and thus to the other 
interior rooms, or through the rear outer door to the 
back porch. This back entry is lighted by a single 
sash window over the outside door leading to the porch. 
Another door, opposite that leading down cellar, opens 
into the ^passage through the wing. From the rear 
hall, which is 16x5 feet, the innermost passage leads 
into a family bedroom, or nursery, 16x14 feet, lighted 
by a window in each outside wall, and warmed by an 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 121 

open fireplace, or stove, at pleasure. Attached to this 
bedroom is a clothes-closet, 8x4 feet, with shelves, and 
drawers. Next the outer door, in rear end of the hall, 
is a small closet opening from it, 6x4 feet in dimen- 
sions, convertible to any use which the mistress of the 
house may direct. 

Opening into the wing from the kitchen, first, is a 
large closet and pantry, supplied with a table, drawers, 
and shelves, in which are stored the dishes, table fur- 
niture, and edibles necessary to be kept at a moment's 
access. This room is 14x8 feet, and well lighted by a 
window of convenient size. If necessary, this room 
may have a partition, shutting off a part from the 
everyday uses which the family requires. In this 
room, so near to the kitchen, to the sink, to hot-water, 
and the other little domestic accessories which good 
housewives know so well how to arrange and appre- 
ciate, all the nice little table-comforts can be got up, 
and perfected, and stored away, under lock and key, in 
drawer, tub, or jar, at their discretion, and still their 
eyes not be away from their subordinates in the other 
departments. Next to this, and connected by a door, 
is the dairy, or milk-room, also 14x8 feet; which, if 
necessary, may be sunk three or four feet into the 
ground, for additional coolness in the summer season, 
and the floor reached by steps. In this are ample 
shelves for the milkpans, conveniences of churning, 
&c., &c. But, if the daily be a prominent object of 
the farm, a separate establishment will be required, 
and the excavation may not be necessary for ordinary 
household uses. Out of this milk-room, a door leads 



122 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

into a wash-room, 18x14 feet. A passage from the 
kitchen also leads into this. The wash-room is lighted 
by two windows in rear, and one in front. A sink is 
between the two rear windows, with conductor leading 
outside, and a closet beneath it, for the iron ware. In 
the chimney, at the end, are boilers, and a fireplace; 
an oven, or anything else required, and a door leading 
to a platform in the wood-house, and so into the yard. 
On the other side of the chimney, a door leads into a 
bathing-room, 7x6 feet, into which hot water is drawn 
from one of the boilers adjoining, and cold water may 
be introduced, by a hand-pump, through a pipe leading 
into the well or cistern. 

As no more convenient opportunity may present it- 
self, a word or two will be suggested as to the location 
of the bath-room in a country house. In city houses, 
or country houses designed for the summer occupancy 
of city dwellers, the bathing-rooms are usually placed 
in the second or chamber story, and the water for their 
supply is drawn from cisterns still above them. This 
arrangement, in city houses, is made chiefly from the 
want of room on the ground floor; and, also, thus ar- 
ranged in the city-country houses, because they are so 
constructed in the city. In the farm house, or in the 
country house proper, occupied by whom it may be, 
such arrangement is unnecessary, expensive, and in- 
convenient. Unnecessary, because there is no want of 
room on the ground ; expensive, because an upper cis- 
tern is always liable to leakages, and a consequent 
wastage of water, wetting, and rotting out the floors, 
and all the slopping and dripping which such accidents 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 123 

occasion ; and inconvenient, from the continual up- 
and-down-stair labor of those who occupy the bath, to 
say nothing of the piercing the walls of the house, for 
the admission of pipes to lead in and let out the water, 
and the thousand-and-one vexations, by way of plum- 
bers' bills, and expense of getting to and from the 
house itself, always a distance of some miles from the 
mechanic. 

The only defence for such location of the bath-room 
and cisterns is, the convenience and privacy of access 
to them, by the females of the family. This counts 
but little, if anything, over the place appropriated in 
this, and the succeeding designs of this work. The ac- 
cess is almost, if not quite as private as the other, and, 
in case of ill-health, as easily approachable to invalids. 
And on the score of economy in construction, repair, 
or accident, the plan here adopted is altogether prefer- 
able. In this plan, the water is drawn from the boiler 
by the turning of a cock ; that from the cistern, by a 
minute's labor with the hand-pump. It is let off by 
the drawing of a plug, and discharges, by a short pipe, 
into the adjoining garden, or grassplat, to moisten and 
invigorate the trees and plants which require it, and 
the whole affair is clean and sweet again. A screen 
for the window gives all the privacy required, and the 
most fastidious, shrinking female is as retired as in the 
shadiest nook of her dressing-room. 

So with water-closets. A fashion prevails of thrust- 
ing these noisome things into the midst of sleeping 
chambers and living rooms pandering to effemi- 
nacy, and, at times, surcharging the house for they 



124: EUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

cannot, at all times, and under all circumstances, be 
kept perfectly close with their offensive odor. Out 
of the house they belong; and if they, by any means, 
find their way within its walls proper, the fault will not 
be laid at our door. 

To get back to our description. This bathing-room 
occupies a corner of the wood-house. 

A raised platform passes from the wash-room in, 
past the bath-room, to a water-closet, which may be 
divided into two apartments, if desirable. The vaults 
are accessible from the rear, for cleaning out, or intro- 
ducing lime, gypsum, powdered charcoal, or other 
deodorizing material. At the extreme corner of the 
wood-house, a door opens into a feed and swill-room, 
20x8 feet, which is reached by steps, and stands quite 
eighteen inches above the ground level, on a stone 
under-pinning, or with a stone cellar beneath, for 
the storage of roots in winter. In one corner of this 
is a boiler and chimney, for cooking food for the pigs 
and chickens. A door leads from this room into the 
piggery, 20x12 feet, where half-a-dozen swine may be 
kept. A door leads from this pen into a yard, in the 
rear, where they will be less offensive than if confined 
within. If necessary, a flight of steps, leading to the 
loft overhead, may be built, where corn can be stored 
for their feeding. 

Next to this is the workshop and tool-house, 18x14 
feet ; and, in rear, a snug, warm house for the family 
chickens, 18x6 feet. These chickens may also have 
the run of the yard in rear, with the pigs, and apart- 
ments in the loft overhead for roosting. 



KURAL AECHITECTTJEE. 125 

Adjoining the workshop is the carriage-house, 18x18 
feet, with a flight of stairs to the hayloft above, in 
idiich is, also, a dovecote ; and, leading out of the car- 
:iage floor, is the stable, 18x12 feet, with stalls for two 
>r four horses, and a passage of four feet wide, from 
the carriage-house into it ; thus completing, and draw- 
ing under one continuous roof, and at less exposure 
than if separated, the chief every-day requirements of 
living, to a well-arranged and highly-respectable family. 

The chamber plan of the dwelling will be readily 
understood by reference to its arrangement. There are 
a sufficiency of closets for all purposes, and the whole 
are accessible from either flight of stairs. The rooms 
over the wing, of course, should be devoted to the male 
domestics of the family, work-people, &c. 



SURROUNDING PLANTATIONS, SHRUBBERY, WALKS, ETC. 

After the general remarks made in the preceding 
pages, no particular instructions can be given for the 
manner in which this residence should be embellished 
in its trees and shrubbery. The large forest trees, 
always grand, graceful, and appropriate, would become 
such a house, throwing a protecting air around and 
over its quiet, unpretending roof. Yines, or climbing 
roses, might throw their delicate spray around the 
columns of the modest veranda, and a varied selection 
of familiar shrubbery and ornamental plants checker 
the immediate front and sides of the house looking 

out upon the lawn ; through which a spacious walk, or 
6 



126 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

carriage-way should wind, from the high road, or chief 
approach. 

There are, however, so many objects to be consulted 
in the various sites of houses, that no one rule can be 
laid down for individual guidance. The surface of the 
ground immediately adjoining the house must be con- 
sidered ; the position of the house, as it is viewed from 
surrounding objects; its altitude, or depression, as 
affected by the adjacent lands ; its command upon sur- 
rounding near, or distant objects, in the way of pros- 
pect; the presence of water, either in stream, pond, or 
lake, far or near, or the absence of water altogether 
all these enter immediately into the manner in which 
the lawn of a house should be laid out, and worked, 
and planted. But as a rule, all filagree work, such as 
serpentine paths, and tortuous, unmeaning circles, arti- 
ficial piles of rock, and a multitude of small orna- 
ments so esteemed, by some should never be intro- 
duced into the lawn of a farm house. It is unmeaning, 
in the first place ; expensive in its care, in the second 
place ; unsatisfactory and annoying altogether. Such 
things about a farm establishment are neither dignified 
nor useful, and should be left to town's-people, having 
but a stinted appreciation of what constitutes natural 
beauty, and wanting to make the most of the limited 
piece of ground of which they are possessed. 

Nor would we shut out, by these remarks, the beauty 
and odor of the flower-borders, which are so appropri- 
ately the care of the good matron of the household and 
her comely daughters. To them may be devoted a 
well-dug plat beneath the windows, or in the garden. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 127 

Enough, and to spare, they should always have, oi 
such cheerful, life-giving pleasures. We only object to 
their being strewed all over the ground, a tussoc of 
plant here, a patch of posey there, and a scattering of 
both everywhere, without either system or meaning. 
They lower the dignity and simplicity of the country 
dwelling altogether. 

The business approach to this house is, of course, 
toward the stables and carriage-house, and from them 
should lead off the main farm-avenue. 

The kitchen garden, if possible, should lie on the 
kitchen side of the house, where, also, should be placed 
the bee-house, in full sight from the windows, that 
their labors and ewarming may be watched. In fact, 
the entire economy of the farm house, and its append- 
ages, should be brought close under the eye of the 
household, to engage their care and watchfulness, and 
to interest them in all the little associations and endear- 
ments and they are many, when properly studied 
out which go to make agricultural life one of the 
most agreeable pursuits, if not altogether so, in which 
our lot in life may be cast. 

A fruit-garden, too, should be a prominent object 
near this house. We are now advancing somewhat 
into the elegances of agricultural life ; and although 
fruit trees, and good fruits too, should hold a strong 
place in the surroundings of even the humblest of all 
country places - sufficient, at least, for the ample use 
of the family they have not yet been noticed, to any 
extent, in those already described. It may be remark- 
ed, that the fruit-garden the orchard, for market 



28 KUEAL AECHITECTUEE. 

purposes, is not here intended should be placed in 
near proximity to the house. All the small fruits, for 
household use, such as strawberries, raspberries, cur- 
rants, gooseberries, blackberries, grapes, as well as 
apricots, plums, nectarines, peaches, pears, apples, 
quinces, or whatever fruits may be cultivated, in dif- 
ferent localities, should be close by, for the convenience 
of collecting them, and to protect them from destruc- 
tion by vermin, birds, or the depredations of creatures 
called human. 

A decided plan of arrangement for all the planta- 
tions and grounds, should enter into the composition of 
the site for the dwelling, out-houses, gardens, &c., as 
they are to appear when the whole establishment is 
completed ; and nothing left to accident, chance, or 
after-thought, which can be disposed of at the com- 
mencement. By the adoption of such a course, the 
entire composition is more easily perfected, and with 
infinitely greater expression of character, than if left 
to the chance designs, or accidental demands of the 
future. 

Another feature should be strictly enforced, in the 
outward appointments of the farm house, and that 
is, the entire withdrawal of any use of the highway 
in its occupation by the stock of the farm, except in 
leading them to and from its enclosures. Nothing 
looks more slovenly, and nothing can be more un- 
thrifty, in an enclosed country, than the running of 
farm stock in the highway. What so untidy as the 
approach to a house, with a herd of filthy hogs root- 
ing about the fences, basking along the sidewalk, or 



AECHITECTUKE. 129 

feeding at a huge, uncouth, hollowed log, in the road 
near the dwelling. It may be out of place here to 
speak of it, but this disgusting spectacle has so often 
offended our sight, at the approach of an otherwise 
pleasant farm establishment, that we cannot forego the 
opportunity to speak of it. The road lying in front, 
or between the different sections of the farm, should 
be as well, and as cleanly kept as any portion of the 
enclosures, and it is equally a sin against good taste 
and neighborhood-morality, to have it otherwise. 



TEEE-PLANTING IN THE HIGHWAY. 

This is frequently recommended by writers on coun- 
try embellishment, as indispensable to a finished deco- 
ration of the farm. Such may, or may not be the fact. 
Trees shade the roads, when planted on their sides, 
and so they partially do the fields adjoining, making 
the first muddy, in bad weather, by preventing the sun 
drying them, and shading the crops of the last by their 
overhanging foliage, in the season of their growth. 
Thus they are an evil, in moist and heavy soils. Yet, 
in light soils, their shade is grateful to the highway 
traveler, and not, perhaps, injurious to the crops of the 
adjoining field ; and when of proper kinds, they add 
grace and beauty to the domain in which they stand. 



130 BUBAL AKCHITECTTTKE. 

"We do not, therefore, indiscriminately recommend 
them, but leave it to the discretion of the farmer, to 
decide for himself, having seen estates equally pleas- 
ant with, and without trees on the roadside. Nothing, 
however, can be more beautiful than a clump of trees 
in a pasture-ground, with a herd, or a flock beneath 
them, near the road ; or the grand and overshadowing 
branches of stately tree, in a rich meadow, leaning, 
perhaps, over the highway fence, or flourishing in its 
solitary grandeur, in the distance each, and all, 
imposing features in the rural landscape. All such 
should be preserved, with the greatest care and so- 
licitude, as among the highest and most attractive 
ornaments which the farm can boast. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. * 133 



DESIGN Y. 

We here present a dwelling of a more ambitious and 
pretending character than any one which we have, as 
yet, described, and calculated for a large and wealthy 
farmer, who indulges in the elegances of country life, 
dispenses a liberal hospitality, and is every way a 
country gentleman, such as all our farmers of ample 
means should be. It will answer the demands of tho 
retired man of business as well ; and is, perhaps, as 
full in its various accommodation as an American farm 
or country house may require. It claims no distinct 
style of architecture, but is a composition agreeable in 
effect, and appropriate to almost any part of the coun- 
try, and its climate. Its site may be on either hill or 
plain with a view extensive, or restricted. It may 
look out over broad savannas, cultivated fields, and 
shining waters ; it may nestle amid its own quiet woods 
and lawn in its own selected shade and retirement, or 
lord it over an extensive park, ranged by herds and 
flocks, meandered by its own stream, spreading anon 
into the placid lake, or rushing swiftly over its own 
narrow bed an independent, substantial, convenient, 
and well conditioned home, standing upon its own broad 
acres, and comporting with the character and standing 
of its occupant, among his friends and neighbors. 



134: *RTTKAL AKCmTECTUEE. 

The main building is 50x40 feet in area upon tho 
ground, two stories high ; the ground story 11 feet high, 
its floor elevated 2J or 3 feet above the level of the 
surrounding surface, as its position may demand ; the 
chambers 9 feet high, and running 2 feet into the roof. 
The rear wing is one and a half stories high, 36x16 
feet ; the lower rooms 11 feet high, with a one story 
lean-to range of closets, and small rooms on the weather 
side, 8 feet in width and 9 feet high. In the rear of 
these is a wood-house, 30x20 feet, with 10 feet posts, 
dropped to a level with the ground. At the extremity 
of this is a building, by way of an L, 60x20 feet, one 
airtl a half stories high, with a lean-to, 12x30 feet, in 
the rear. The ground rooms of this are elevated 1J 
feet above the ground, and 9 feet high. A broad roof 
covers the whole, standing at an angle of 40 or 45 
above a horizontal line, and projecting widely over the 
walls, 2J to 3 feet on the main building, and 2 feet 
on the, others, to shelter them perfectly from the storms 
and damps of the weather. A small cupola stands out 
of the ridge of the rear building, which may serve as 
a ventilator to the apartments and lofts below, and in 
it may be hung a bell, to summon the household, or 
the field laborers, as the case may be, to their duties 
or their meals. 

The design, as here shown, is rather florid, and per- 
haps profusely ornamental in its finish, as comporting 
with the taste of the day ", but the cut and moulded 
trimmings may be left off by those who prefer a plain 
finish, and be no detriment to the general effect which 
tho deep friezes of the roofs, properly cased beneath. 



RURAL AJJCBTTECTTJRE. 135 

may give to it. Such, indeed, is our own taste ; but 
this full finish has been added, to gratify such as wish 
the full ornament which this style of building may 
admit. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front of this house is accommodated by a porch, 
or veranda, 40 feet long, and 10 feet wide, with a 
central, or entrance projection of 18 feet in length, and 
12 feet in width, the floor of which is eight inches 
below the main floor of the house. The wings, or 
sides of this veranda may be so fitted up as to allow a 
pleasant conservatory on each side of the entrance area 
in winter, by enclosing them with glass windows, and 
the introduction of heat from a furnace under the main 
hall, in the cellar of the house. This would add to its 
general effect in winter, and, if continued through the 
summer, would not detract from its expression of dig- 
nity and refinement. From the veranda, a door in 
the center of the front, with two side windows, leads 
into the main hall, which is 26x12 feet in area, two 
feet in the width of which is taken from the rooms on 
the right of the main entrance. On the left of the hall 
a door opens into a parlor or drawing-room, marked P, 
20 feet square, with a bay window on one side, con- 
taining three sashes, and seats beneath. A single 
window lights the front opening on to the veranda. 
On the opposite side to this is the fireplace, with blank 
walls on each side. On the opposite side of the hall is 

a library, 18x16 feet, with an end window, and a 
6* 



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RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 137 

corresponding one to the parlor, in front, koking out 
on the veranda. In case these portions of the veranda, 
opposite the two front windows are occupied as conser- 
vatories, these windows should open to the floor, to 
admit a walk immediately into them. At the farther 
corner of the library a narrow door leads into an office, 
or business apartment, 12x8 feet, and opening by a 
broad door, the upper half of which is a lighted sash. 
This door leads from the office out on a small porch, 
with a floor and two columns, 8x5 feet, and nine feet 
high, with a gable and double roof of the same pitch 
as the house. Between the chimney flues, in the rear 
of this room may be placed an iron safe, or chest for 
the deposit of valuable papers ; and, although small, a 
table and chairs sufficient to accommodate the business 
requirements of the occupant, may be kept in it. A 
chimney stands in the center of the inner wall of the 
library, in which may be a fireplace, or a flue to 
receive a stovepipe, whichever may be preferred for 
warming the room. 

Near the hall side of the library a door opens into a 
passage leading into the family bedroom, or nursery. 
A portion of this passage may be shelved and fitted up 
as a closet for any convenient purpose. The nursery 
is 18x16 feet in size, lighted by two windows. It may 
have an open fireplace, or a stove, as preferred, let 
into the chimney, corresponding to that in the library. 
These two chimneys may either be drawn together in 
the chambers immediately above, or carried up sepa- 
rately into the garret, and pass out of the roof in one 
stack, or they may be built in one solid mass from the 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

cellar bottom ; but they are so placed here, as saving 
room on the floors, and equally accommodating, in 
their separate divisions, the stovepipes that may lead 
into them. On the inner side of the nursery, a door 
leads into a large closet, or child's sleeping-room, 9x8 
feet ; or it may be used as a dressing-room, with a 
sash inserted in the door to light it. A door may also 
lead from it into the small rear entry of the house, and 
thus pass directly out, without communicating with the 
nursery. On the extreme left corner of the nursery is 
a door leading into the back entry, by which it com- 
municates either with the rear porch, the dining-room, 
or the kitchen. Such a room we consider indispensable 
to the proper accommodation of a house in the country, 
as saving a world of up-and-down-stairs' labor to her 
who is usually charged with the domestic cares and 
supervision of the family. 

On the right -of the main hall an ample staircase 
leads into the upper hall by a landing and broad stair 
at eight feet above the floor, and a right-angled flight 
from that to the main floor above. Under this main 
hall staircase, a door and stairs may lead into the cellar. 
Beyond the turning flight below, a door leads into the 
back hall, or entry, already mentioned, which is 13x4 
feet in area, which also has a side passage of 8x4 feet, 
and a door leading to the rear porch, and another 
into the kitchen at its farther side, near the outer one. 
Opposite the turning flight of stairs, in the main hall, 
is also a door leading to the dining-room, 20x16 feet. 
This is lighted by a large double window at the end. 
A fireplace, or stove flue is in the center wall, and on 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 139 

each side a closet for plate, or table furniture. These 
closets come out flush with the chimney. At the 
extreme right corner a door leads into the rear entry 
or this may be omitted, at pleasure. Another door 
in the rear wall leads into the kitchen, past the passage 
down into the cellar or this may be omitted, if 
thought best. Still another door to the left, opens into 
a large dining closet of the back lean-to apartments, 
8x8 feet. This closet is lighted by a window of proper 
architectural size, and fitted up with a suite of drawers, 
shelves, table, and cupboards, required for the prepar- 
ation and deposit of the lighter family stores and edi- 
bles. From this closet is also a door leading into the 
kitchen, through which may be passed all the meats 
and cookery for the table, either for safe-keeping, 
or immediate service. Here the thrifty and careful 
housekeeper and her assistants may, shut apart, and 
by themselves, get up, fabricate, and arrange all their 
table delicacies with the greatest convenience and pri- 
vacy, together with ease of access either to the dining- 
room or kitchen an apartment most necessary in a 
liberally -arranged establishment. 

From the rear entry opens a door to the kitchen, 
passing by the rear chamber stairs. This flight of 
stairs may be entered directly from the kitchen, lead- 
ing either to the chamber, or under them, into the 
cellar, without coming into the passage connecting 
with the entry or dining-room, if preferred. In such 
case, a broad stair of thirty inches in width should 
be next the door, on which to turn, as the door would 
be at right angles with the stairs, either up or down. 



14:0 EUKAL AKCHITECTDRE. 

Tlie kitchen is 20x16 feet, and 11 feet high. It has 
an outer door leading on the rear porch, and a win- 
dow on each side of that door ; also a window, under 
which is a sink, on the opposite side, at the end of a 
passage four feet wide, leading through the lean-to. 
It has also an open fireplace, and an oven by the side 
of it old fashion. It may be also furnished with a 
cooking range, or stove the smoke and fumes leading 
by a pipe into a flue into the chimney. On the lean-to 
side is a milk or dairy-room, 8x8 feet, lighted by a 
window. Here also the kitchen furniture and meats 
may be stored in cupboards made for the purpose. In 
rear of the kitchen, and leading from it by a door 
through a lighted passage next the rear porch, is the 
wash-room, 16x16 feet, lighted by a large window 
from the porch side. A door also leads out of the rear 
on to a platform into the wood-house. Another door 
leads from the wash-room into a bath-room in the lean- 
to 8x8 feet, into which warm water is drawn by a 
pipe and pump from the boiler in the wash-room ; or, 
if preferred, the bath-room may be entered from the 
main kitchen, by the passage next the sink. This bath- 
room is lighted by a window. Next to the bath-room 
is a bedroom for a man servant who has charge of the 
fires, and heavy house-work, wood, &c., &c. This 
bedroom is also 8x8 feet, and lighted by a window in 
the lean-to. In front of this wash-room and kitchen is 
a porch, eight inches below the floor, six feet wide, 
with a railing, or not, as may be preferred. (The 
railing ia made in the cut.) A platform, three feet 
wide, leads from the back door of the wash-room to a 



KUKAL ARCinTECTUEE. 14:1 

water-closet for the family proper. The wood-house is 
open in front, with a single post supporting the center 
of the roof. At the extreme outer angle is a water- 
closet for the domestics of the establishment. 

Adjoining the wood-house, and opening from it into 
the L before mentioned, is a workshop, and small-tool- 
house, 20x16 feet, lighted by a large double window 
at one end. In this should be a carpenter's work- 
bench and tool-chest, for the repairs of the farming 
utensils and vehicles. Overhead is a store-room for 
lumber, or whatever else may be necessary for use in 
that capacity. Next to this is a granary or feed-room, 
20x10 feet, with a small chimney in one corner, where 
may be placed a boiler to cook food for pigs, poultry, 
&c., as the case may be. Here may also be bins for 
storage of grain and meal. Leading out of this is a 
flight of stairs passing to the chamber above, and a 
passage four feet wide, through the rear, into a yard 
adjoining. At the further end of the stairs a door 
opens into a poultry house, 16x10 feet, including the 
stairs. The poultry room is lighted at the extreme left 
corner, by a broad window. In this may be made 
roosts, and nesting places, and feeding troughs. A low 
door under the window may be also made for the fowls 
in passing to the rear yard. Adjoining the granary, 
and leading to it by a door, is the carriage-house, 
20x20 feet, at the gable end of which are large doors 
for entrance. From the carriage-house is a broad 
passage of six feet, into the stables, which are 12 feet 
wide, and occupy the lean-to. This lean-to is eight 
feet high bebw the eaves, with two double stalls for 



142 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

horses, and a door leading into the side yard, with the 
doors of the carriage-house. A window also lights the 
rear of the stables. A piggery 12 feet square occupies 
the remainder of the lean-to in rear of the poultry- 
house, in which two or three pigs can always be kept, 
and fatted on the offal of the house, for small pork, at 
any season, apart from the swine stock of the farm. 
A door leads out of the piggery into the rear yard, 
where range also the poultry. As the shed roof shuts 
down on to the pigsty and stables, no loft above them 
is necessary. In the loft over the granary, poultry, 
and carriage-house is deposited the hay, put in there 
through the doors which appear in the design. 

CHAMBER PLAN. This is easily understood. At 
the head of the stairs, over the main hall, is a large 
passage leading to the porch, and opening by a door- 
window on the middle deck of the veranda, which 
is nearly level, and tinned, or coppered, water-tight, as 
are also the two sides. On either side of this upper 
hall is a door leading to the front sleeping chambers, 
which are well closeted, and spacious. If it be desira- 
ble to construct more sleeping-rooms, they can be par- 
titioned laterally from the hall, and doors made to 
enter them. A rear hall is cut off from the front, 
lighted by a window over the lower rear porch, and a 
door leads into a further passage in the wing, fo'jr feet 
wide, which leads down a flight of stairs into the 
kitchen below. At the head of this flight is a chamber 
20x12 feet, for the female domestic's sleeping-room, in 
which may be placed a stove, if necessary, passing ita 
pipe into the kitchen chimnev which passes through it. 



BURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



143 



16 X 16 



20X12 



12X12 







16X18 



20X18 26X12 16X13 



CHAMBEB. FLAW. 



It is also lighted by a window over the lean-to, on the 
side. Back of this, at the end of the passage, is 
the sleeping-room, 16 feet square, for the " men-folks," 
lighted on both sides by a window. This may also be 
warmed, if desired, by a stove, the pipe passing into 
the kitchen chimney. 

The cellar may extend under the entire house and 
wing, as convenience or necessity may require. If it 
be constructed under the main body only, an offset 
should be excavated to accommodate the cellar stairs, 
tliree feet in width, and walled in with the rest. A 



144 EHRAL AECHITECTTTKE. 

wide, outer passage, with a flight of steps should also 
be made under the rear nursery window, for taking in 
and passing out bulky articles, with double doors to 
shut down upon it ; and partition walls should be built 
to support the partitions of the large rooms above. 
Many minor items of detail might be mentioned, all of 
which are already treated in the general remarks, 
under their proper heads, in the body of the work, and 
which cannot here be noticed such as the mode of 
warming it, the construction of furnaces, &c. 

It may, by some builders, be considered a striking 
defect in the interior accommodation of a house of this 
character, that the chief entrance hall should not be 
extended through, from its front to the rear, as is com- 
mon in many of the large mansions of our country. 
We object to the large, open hall for more than one 
reason, except, possibly, in a house for summer occu- 
pation only. In the first place it is uncomfortable, in 
subjecting the house to an unnecessary draught of air 
when it is not needed, in cold weather. Secondly, it 
cuts the house into two distinct parts, making them 
inconvenient of access in crossing its wide surface. 
Thirdly, it is uneconomical, in taking up valuable room 
that can be letter appropriated. For summer ventila- 
tion it is unnecessary ; that may be given by simply 
opening the front door and a chamber window con- 
nected with the hall above, through which a current 
of fresh air will always pass. Another thing, the hail 
belongs to the front, or dress part of the house, and 
should be cut off from the more domestic and common 
apartments by a partition, although accessible to them, 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 145 

and not directly commimi eating with such apartments, 
which cannot of necessity, be in keeping with its showy 
and pretending character. It should contain only the 
front flight of stairs, as a part of its appointments, 
oesides the doors leading to its best apartments on the 
ground floor, which should be centrally placed its 
rear door being of a less pretending and subordinate 
character. Thus, the hall, with its open doors, con- 
necting the best rooms of the house on each side, with 
its ample flight of stairs in the background, gives a 
distinct expression of superiority in occupation to the 
other and humbler portions of the dwelling. 

In winter, too, how much more snug and comfortable 
is the house, shut in from the prying winds and shiv- 
ering cold of the outside air, which the opposite outer 
doors of an open hall cannot, in their continual opening 
and shutting, altogether exclude! Our own experi- 
ence, and, we believe, the experience of most house- 
keepers will readily concede its defects ; and after full 
reflection we have excluded it as both unnecessary and 
inconvenient. 

Another objection has been avoided in the better 
class of houses here presented, which has crept into 
very many of the designs of modern builders ; which is, 
that of using the living rooms of the family, more or 
less, as passages from the kitchen apartments in pass- 
ing to and from the front hall, or chief entrance. Such 
we consider a decided objection, and hence arose, 
probably, the older plans of by-gone years, of making 
the main hall reach back to the kitchen itself. This is 
here obviated by a cutting up of the rear section of the 



146 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

hall, by which a passage, in all cases of the better kind 
of dwelling, is preserved, without encroaching upon 
the occupied rooms in passing out and in. To be sure, 
the front door is not the usual passage for the laborers 
or servants of the house, but they are subject, any hour 
of the day, to be called there to admit those who may 
come, and the continual opening of a private room for 
such purposes is most annoying. Therefore, as mat- 
ter of convenience, and as a decided improvement on 
the designs above noticed, we have adhered strictly to 
the separate rear passage. 

The garret, also, as we have arranged our designs, is 
either altogether left out, or made a quite unimportant 
part of the dwelling. It is but a lumber room, at best ; 
and should be approached only by a flight of steps 
from a rear chamber or passage, and used as a recep- 
tacle for useless traps, or cast-off furniture, seldom 
wanted. It is hot in summer, and cold in winter, unfit 
for decent lodging to any human being in the house, 
and of little account any way. We much prefer run- 
ning the chambers partially into the roof, which we 
think gives them a more comfortable expression, and 
admits of a better ventilation, by carrying their ceilings 
higher without the expense of high body walls to the 
jiouse, which would give them an otherwise naked 
look. If it be objected that thus running the chambers 
above the plates of the roof prevents the insertion of 
proper ties or beams to hold the roof plates together to 
prevent their spreading, we answer, that he must be a 
poor mechanic who cannot, in framing the chamber 
partitions so connect the opposite plates as to insure 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 147 

them against all such difficulty. A sTieltered, comfort- 
able aspect is that which should distinguish every farm 
house, and the cottage chamber is one of its chiefest 
characteristics ; and this can only be had by running 
such apartments into the roof, as in our design. 



CONSTRUCTION". 

A house of this kind must, according to its locality, 
and the material of which it is built, be liable to wide 
differences of estimate in its cost ; and from our own 
experience in such matters, any estimate here made 
we know cannot be reliable >as a rule for other locali- 
ties, where the prices of material and labor are differ- 
ent from our own. Where lumber, stone, and brick 
abound, and each are to be had at reasonable prices, 
the cost of an establishment of this kind would not 
vary much in the application of either one of these 
materials for the walls, if well and substantially con- 
structed. There should be no sham, nor slight, in any 
part of the building. As already observed, the design 
shows a high degree of finish, which, if building for 
ourself, we should not indulge in. A plain style of 
cornice, and veranda finish, we should certainly adopt. 
But the roof should not be contracted in its projecting 
breadth over the walls, in any part of the structure 
if anything, it should be more extended. The bay- 
window is an appendage of luxury, only. Great care 
should be had, in attaching its roof to the adjoining 
outer wall, to prevent leakage of any kind. If the 



148 BUBAL ABCHITECTTIRfc. 

walls be of brick, or stone, a beam or lintel of wood 
should be inserted in the wall over the window-opening, 
quite two inches three would be better back from 
its outer surface, to receive the casing of the window, 
that the drip of the wall, and the driving of the storms 
may fall over the connecting joints of the window 
roof, beyond its point of junction with it. Such, also, 
should be the case with the intersection of the veranda 
or porch roof with the wall of the house, wherever a 
veranda, or porch is adopted ; as, simply joined on to 
a f/ush surface, as such appendages usually are even 
if ever so well done leakage and premature decay 
is inevitable. 

The style of finish must, of course, influence, in a 
considerable degree, its cost. It may, with the plain- 
est finish, be done for $4,000, and from that, up to 
$6,000. Every one desirous to build, should apply to 
the best mechanics of his neighborhood for informa- 
tion on that point, as, in such matters, they are the 
best judges, and from experience in their own particu- 
lar profession, of what the cost of building must be. 

The rules and customs of housekeeping vary, in dif- 
ferent sections of the United States, and the Canadas. 
These, also, enter into the estimates for certain depart- 
ments of building, and must be considered in the 
items of expenditure. 

The manner in which houses should be warmed, the 
ventilation, accommodation for servants and laborers, 
the appropriations to hospitality all, will have a beai- 
ing on the expense, of which we cannot be the proper 
judge. 



EITRAL AKCHITECTUKE. 149 



A sufficient time should be given, to build a Louse 
of this character. A house designed and built in a 
hurry, is never a satisfactory house in its occupation. 
A year is little enough, and if two years be occupied 
hi its design and construction, the more acceptable will 
probably be its finish, and the more comfort will be 
added in its enjoyment. 



GROUNDS, PLANTATIONS, AND SURROUNDINGS. 

A house of this kind should never stand in vulgar 
and familiar contact with the highway, but at a dis- 
tance from it of one hundred to a thousand yards ; or 
even, if the estate on which it is built be extensive, a 
much greater distance. Breadth of ground between 
the highway and the dwelling adds dignity and char- 
acter to its appearance. An ample lawn, or a spread- 
ing park, well shaded with trees, should lay before it, 
through which a well-kept avenue leads to its front, 
and most frequented side. The various offices and 
buildings of the farm itself, should be at a respectable 
distance from it, so as not to interfere with its proper 
keeping as a genteel country residence. Its occupant 
is not to be supposed as under the necessity of toiling 
with his daily laborers in the fields, and therefore, 
although he may be strictly a man of business, he has 
sufficient employment in planning his work, and man- 
aging his estate through a foreman, in the various 
labor-occupations of the estate. His horse may be at 
his door in the earliest morning hours, that he may 



150 ETJKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

inspect Ins fields, and give timely directions to his 
laborers, or view his herds, or his flocks, before his 
breakfast' hour ; or an early walk may take him to his 
stables, his barns, or to see that his previous directions 
are executed. 

The various accommodation appurtenant to the dwell- 
ing, makes ample provision for the household conven- 
ience of the family, and the main business of the farm 
may be at some distance, without inconvenience to the 
owner's every-day affairs. Consequently, the indul- 
gence of a considerable degree of ornament may be 
given, in the surroundings of his dwelling, which the 
occupant of a less extensive estate would neither re- 
quire, nor his circumstances warrant. A natural forest 
of stately trees, properly thinned out, is the most ap- 
propriate spot on which to build a house of this char- 
acter. But that not at hand, it should be set off with 
plantations of forest trees, of the largest growth, as in 
keeping with its own liberal dimensions. A capacious 
kitchen garden should lead off from the rear apart- 
ments, well stocked with all the family vegetables, and 
culinary fruits, in their proper seasons. A luxuriant 
fruit-garden may flank the least frequented side of the 
house. Neat and tasteful flower beds may lie beneath 
the windows of the rooms appropriated to the leisure 
hours of the family, to which the smaller varieties of 
shrubbery may be added, separated from the chief 
lawn, or park, only by a wire fence, or a simple railing, 
such as not to cut up and checker its simple and digni- 
fied surface ; and all these shut in on the rear from the 
adjoining fields of the farm by belts of large shrubbery 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE 151 

closely planted, or the larger orchards, thus giving it a 
style of its own, yet showing its connection with the 
pursuits of the farm and its dependence upon it. 

These various appointments, however, may be either 
carried out or restricted, according to the requirements 
of the family occupying the estate, and the prevailing 
local taste of the vicinity in which it is situated ; but 
no narrow or stingy spirit should be indicated in the 
general plan or in its execution. Every appointment 
connected with it should indicate a liberality of pur- 
pose in the founder, without which its effect is pain- 
fully marred to the eye of the man of true taste and 
judgment. Small yards, picketed in for small uses, 
have no business in sight of the grounds in front, and 
all minor concerns should be thrown into the rear, 
beyond observation from the main approach to the 
dwelling. The trees that shade the entrance park, or 
lawn, should be chiefly forest trees, as the oak, in its 
varieties, the elm, the maple, the chestnut, walnut, 
butternut, hickory, or beech. If the soil be favorable, 
a few weeping willows may throw their drooping spray 
around the house ; and if exotic, or foreign trees be 
permitted, they should take their position in closer 
proximity to it than the natural forest trees, as indica- 
ting the higher care and cultivation which attaches to 
its presence. The Lombardy poplar, albeit a tree of 
disputed taste with modern planters, we would now 
and then throw in, not in stiff and formal rows, as 
guarding an avenue, but occasionally in the midst of 
a group of others, above which it should rise like a 

church spire from amidst a block of contiguous houses 

7 



152 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

a cheerful relief to the monotony of the rounder-headed 
branches of the more spreading varieties. If a stream 
of water meander the park, or spread into a little pond, 
trees which are partial to moisture should shadow it at 
different points, and low, water shrubs should hang 
over its border, or even run into its margin. Aquatic 
herbs, too, may form a part of its ornaments, and a 
boat-house, if such a thing be necessary, should, under 
the shade of a hanging tree of some kind, be a conspic- 
uous object in the picture. An overhanging rock, if 
such a thing be native there, may be an object of great 
attraction to its features, and its outlet may steal away 
and be hid in a dense mass of tangled vines and brush- 
wood. The predominating, natural features of the 
place should be cultivated, not rooted out, and meta- 
morphosed into something foreign and unfamiliar. It 
should, in short, be nature with her hair combed out 
straight, flowing, and graceful, instead of pinched, 
puffed, and curling a thing of luxuriance and beauty 
under the hand of a master. 

The great difficulty with many Americans in getting 
up a new place of any considerable extent is, that they 
seem to think whatever is common, or natural in the 
features of the spot must be so changed as to show, 
above all others, their own ingenuity and love of ex- 
pense in fashioning it to their peculiar tastes. Hocks 
must be sunk, or blasted, trees felled, and bushes 
grubbed, crooked water-courses straightened the 
place gibbeted and put into stocks ; in fact, that their 
own boasted handiwork may rise superior to the 
wisdom of Him who fashioned it in his own good 



RTJBAL ARCHITECTURE. 153 

pleasure ; forgetting that a thousand points of natural 
beauty upon the earth on which they breathe are 

" When unadorned, adorned the most ; " 

and our eye has been frequently shocked at finding the 
choicest gems of nature sacrificed to a wanton display 
of expense in perverting, to the indulgence of a mis- 
taken fancy, that, which, with an eye to truth and 
propriety, and at a trifling expense, might have be- 
come a spot of abiding interest and contentment. 



BUBAL AECIHTECTUBE. 



DESIGN YI. 

A SOUTHERN OB PLANTATION HOUSE. The proprie- 
tor of a plantation in the South, or South-west, re- 
quires altogether a different kind of residence from the 
farmer of the Northern, or Middle States. He resides 
in the midst of his own principality, surrounded by a 
retinue of dependents and laborers, who dwell distant 
and apart from his own immediate family, although 
composing a community requiring his daily care and 
superintendence for a great share of his time. A por- 
tion of them are the attaches of his household, yet so 
disconnected in their domestic relations, as to require 
a separate accommodation, and yet be in immediate 
contiguity with it, and of course, an arrangement of 
living widely different from those who mingle in the 
same circle, and partake at the same board. 

The usual plan of house-building at the South, we 
are aware, is to have detached servants' rooms, and 
offices, and a space of some yards of uncovered way 
intervene between the family rooms of the chief dwell- 
ing and its immediate dependents. Such arrange- 
ment, however, we consider both unnecessary and 
inconvenient; and we have devised a plan of house- 
hold accommodation which will bring the family of 
the planter himself, and their servants, although under 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 157 

different roofs, into convenient proximity with each 
other. A design of this kind is here given. 

The style is mainly Italian, plain, substantial, yet, 
we think, becoming. The broad veranda, stretching 
around three sides, including the front, gives an air of 
sheltered repose to what might otherwise appear an 
ambitious structure; and the connected apartments 
beyond, show a quiet utility which divests it of an 
over attempt at display. Nothing has been attempted 
for appearance, solely, beyond what is necessary and 
proper in the dwelling of a planter of good estate, who 
wants his domestic affairs well regulated, and his 
family, and servants duly provided with convenient 
accommodation. The form of the main dwelling is 
nearly square, , upright, with two full stories, giving 
ample area of room and ventilation, together with that 
appropriate indulgence to ease which the enervating 
warmth of a southern climate renders necessary. The 
servants' apartments, and kitchen offices are so dis- 
posed, that while connected, to render them easy of 
access, they are sufficiently remote to shut off the 
familiarity of association which would render them 
obnoxious to the most fastidious all, in fact, under 
one shelter, and within the readiest call. Such should 
be the construction of a planter's house in the United 
States, and such this design is intended to give. 

A* stable and carriage-house, in the same style, is 
near by, not connected to any part of the. dwelling, as 
in the previous designs with sufficient accommoda- 
tion for coachman and grooms, and the number of 
saddle and carriage horses that may be required for 



158 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

either business or pleasure ; and to it may be connected, 
in the rear, in the same style of building, or plainer, 
and less expensive, further conveniences for such do- 
mestic animals as may be required for family use. 

The whole stands in open grounds, and may be sep- 
arated from each other by enclosures, as convenience 
or fancy may direct. 

The roofs of all the buildings are broad and sweep- 
ing, well protecting the walls from storm and frosts, 
as well as the glaring influences of the sun, and com- 
bining that comfortable idea of shelter and repose so 
grateful in a well-conditioned country house. It is 
true, that the dwelling might be more extensive in 
room, and the purposes of luxury enlarged ; but the 
planter on five hundred, or five thousand acres of land 
can here be sufficiently accommodated in all the rea- 
sonable indulgences of family enjoyment, and a lib- 
eral, even an elegant and prolonged hospitality, to 
which he is so generally inclined. 

The chimneys of this house, different from those in 
the previous designs, are placed next the outer walls, 
thus giving more space to the interior, and not being 
required, as in the others, to promote additional warmth 
than their fireplaces will give, to the rooms. A deck 
on the roof affords a pleasant look-out for the family 
from its top, guarded by a parapet, and giving a finish 
to its architectural appearance, and yet making no 
ambitious attempt at expensive ornament. It is, in 
fact, a plain, substantial, respectable mansion for a gen- 
tleman of good estate, and nothing beyond it. 



HUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 



159 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

This house stands 50 x 40 feet on the ground. The 
front door opens from the veranda into a hall, 24 x 14 
feet, in which is a flight of stairs leading to the cham- 
bers above. On the left a door leads into a library, or 



GROCXD PLAX. 




160 RURAJL ARCHITECTURE. 

business room, 17x17 feet, lighted by three windows. 
A fireplace is inserted in the outer wall. Another 
door leads into a side hall, six feet wide, which sepa- 
rates the library from the dining-room, which is also 
17x17 feet in area, lighted and accommodated with a 
fireplace like the other, with a door leading into it from 
the side hall, and another door at the further right 
hand corner leading into the rear hall, or entry. 

On the right of the chief entrance hall, opposite the 
library, a door opens into the parlor or drawing-room, 
23x19 feet in area, lighted by three windows, and 
having a fireplace in the side wall. A door leads from 
the rear side of the parlor into a commodious nursery, 
or family bedroom, 19x16 feet in size, lighted by a 
window in each outer wall. A fireplace is also inserted 
on the same line as in the parlor. From the nursery a 
door leads into and through a large closet, 9x7 feet, 
into the rear hall. This closet may also be used as a 
sleeping-room for the children, or a confidential ser- 
vant-maid, or nurse, or devoted to the storage of bed- 
linfen for family use. Further on, adjoining, is another 
closet, 7x6 feet, opening from the rear hall, and lighted 
by a window. 

Leading from the outer door of the rear hall is a 
covered passage six feet wide, 16 feet long, and one 
and a half stories high, leading to the kitchen offices, 
and lighted by a window on the left, with a door 
opening in the same side beyond, on to the side front 
of the establishment. On the right, opposite, a door 
leads on to the kitchen porch, which is six feet wide, 
passing on to the bath-room and water-closet, in the 



RUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 163 

far rear. At the end of the connecting passage from 
the main dwelling, a door opens into the kitchen, 
which is 24x18 feet in size, accommodated with two 
windows looking on to the porch just described. At 
one end is an open fireplace with a cooking range on 
one side, and an oven on the other. At the left of the 
entrance door is a large, commodious store-room and 
pantry, 12x9 feet, lighted by a window; and adjoining 
it, (and may be connected with it by a door, if neces- 
sary,) a kitchen closet of the same size, also connected 
by a corresponding door from the opposite corner of 
the kitchen. Between these doors is a flight of stairs 
leading to the sleeping-rooms above, and a cellar pas- 
sage beneath them. In the farther right corner of the 
kitchen a door leads into a smaller closet, 8x6 feet, 
lighted by a small window looking on to the rear porch 
at the end. A door at the rear of the kitchen leads 
out into the porch of the wash-room beyond, which is 
six feet wide, and another door into the wash-room 
itself, which is 20x16 feet, and furnished with a chim- 
ney and boilers. A window looks out on the extreme 
right hand, and two windows on to the porch in front. 
A door opens from its rear wall into the wood-house, 
32x12 feet, which stands open on two sides, supported 
by posts, and under the extended roof of the wash-room 
and its porch just mentioned. A servants' water- 
closet is attached to the extreme right corner of the 
wood-house, by way of lean-to. 

The bath-room is 10x6 feet in area, and supplied 
with water from the kitchen boilers adjoining. The wa 

ter-closet beyond is 6 feet square, and architecturally. 
7* 



162 



BTTKAL ARCHITECTURE. 



in its roof, may be made a fitting termination to that 
of the porch leading to it. 



15 X 17 



15X12 



16X10 



10 X 17 



22 X 19 I 



' 15 X 17 



CHAMBEK PLAN. 



The main flight of stairs in the entrance hall leads 
on to a broad landing in the spacious upper hall, from 
which doors pass into the several chambers, which 
may be duly accommodated with closets. The pas- 
sage connecting with the upper story of the servants' 
offices, opens from the rear section of this upper hall, 
and by the flight of rear stairs communicates with the 
kitchen and out-buildings. A garret flight of steps 
may be made in the rear section of the main upper 
hall, by which that apartment may be reached, and 
the upper deck of the roof ascended. 

The sleeping-rooms of the kitchen may be divided 
off as convenience may dictate, and the entire structure 
thus appropriated to every accommodation which a 
well-regulated family need require. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



163 




CARRIAGE HOUSE. 



The carriage-house is 48x24 feet in size, with a 
projection of five feet on the entrance front, the door 
of which leads both into the carriage-room and stables. 
On the right is a bedroom, 10x8 feet, for the grooms, 
lighted by a window ; and beyond are six stalls for 
horses, with a window in the rear wall beyond them. 
A flight of stairs leads to the hayloft above. In the 
rear of the carriage-room is a harness-room, 12x4 feet, 
and a granary of the same size, each lighted by a 
window. If farther attachments be required for the 
accommodation of out-building conveniences, they may 
be continued indefinitely in the rear. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

It may strike the reader that the house just described 
has a lavish appropriation of veranda, and a needless 
side-front, which latter may detract from the precise 
architectural keeping that a dwelling of this pretension 
should maintain. In regard to the first, it may be 
remarked, that no feature of the house in a southern 
climate can be more expressive of easy, comfortable 



164 RUKAI, ARCniTKCTUKE. 

enjoyment, than a spacious veranda. The habits of 
southern life demand it as a place of exercise in wet 
weather, and the cooler seasons of the year, as well as 
a place of recreation and social intercourse during the 
fervid heats of the summer. Indeed, many southern 
people almost live under the shade of their verandas. 
It is a delightful place to take their meals, to receive 
their visitors and friends ; and the veranda gives to a 
dwelling the very expression of hospitality, so far as 
any one feature of a dwelling can do it. No equal 
amount of accommodation can be provided for the 
same cost. It adds infinitely to the room of the U&use 
itself, and is, in fact, indispensable to the full enjoy- 
ment of a southern house. 

The side front in this design is simply a matter of 
convenience to the owner and occupant of the estate, 
who has usually much office business in its manage- 
ment ; and in the almost daily use of his library, where 
such business may be done, a side door and front is 
both appropriate and convenient. The chief front 
entrance belongs to his family and guests, and should 
be devoted to their exclusive use ; and as a light fence 
may be thrown oft' from the extreme end of the side 
porch, separating the front lawn from the rear approach 
to the house, the veranda on that side may be reached 
from its rear end, for business purposes, without intru- 
ding upon the lawn at all. So we would arrange it. 

Objections may be made to the sameness of plan, in 
the arrangement of the lower rooms of the several 
designs which we have submitted, such as having the 
nursery, or family sleeping-room, on the main floor of 



RITUAL ARCHITECTURE. 165 

the house, and the uniformity, in location, of the others , 
and that there are no new and striking features in them. 
The answer to these may be, that the room appropriated 
for the nursery, or bedroom, may be used for other pur- 
poses, equally as well ; that when a mode of accommo- 
dation is already as convenient as may be, it is poorly 
worth while to make it less convenient, merely for the 
sake of variety ; and, that utility and convenience are 
the main objects to be attained in any well-ordered 
dwelling. These two requisites, utility and conven- 
ience, attained, the third and principal one comfort 
is secured. Cellar kitchens the most abominable 
nuisances that ever crept into a country dwelling 
might have been adopted, no doubt, to the especial 
delight of some who know nothing of the experimental 
duties of housekeeping; but the recommendation of 
these is an offence which we have no stomach to answer 
for hereafter. Steep, winding, and complicated stair- 
cases might have given a new feature to one or another 
of the designs ; dark closets, intricate passages, unique 
cubby -holes, and all sorts of inside gimcrackery might 
have amused our pencil ; but we have avoided them, 
as well as everything which would stand in the way of 
the simplest, cheapest, and most direct mode of reach- 
ing the object in view: a convenient, comfortably- 
arranged dwelling within, having a respectable, digni- 
fied appearance without and such, we trust, have 
been thus far presented in our designs. 



166 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

LAWN, AND PARK SURROUNDINGS. 

The trees and shrubbery which ornament the ap- 
proach to this house, should be rather of the graceful 
varieties, than otherwise. The weeping-willow, the 
horse-chesnut, the mountain-ash, if suitable to the cli- 
mate ; or the china-tree of the south, or the linden, the 
weeping-elm, and the silver-maple, with its long slen- 
der branches and hanging leaves, would add most to 
the beauty, and comport more closely with the charac- 
ter of this establishment, than the more upright, stiff, 
and unbending trees of our American forests. The 
Lombardy-poplar albeit, an object of fashionable 
derision with many tree-fanciers in these more tasty 
days, as it was equally the admiration of our fathers, 
of forty years ago would set off and give effect 
*to a mansion of this character, either in a clump at the 
back-ground, as shown in the design, or occasionally 
shooting up its spire-like top through a group of the 
other trees. Yet, if built in a fine natural park or 
lawn of oaks, with a few other trees, such as we have 
named, planted immediately around it, this house 
would still show with fine effect. 

The style of finish given to this dwelling may appear 
too ornate and expensive for the position it is supposed 
to occupy. If so, a plainer mode of finish may be 
adopted, to the cheapest degree consistent with the 
manner of its construction. Still, on examination, there 
will be found little intricate or really expensive work 
upon it. Strength, substance, durability, should all 
enter into its composition ; and without these elements, 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 167 

a house of this appearance is a mere bauble, not fit t j 
stand upon the premises of any man of substantial 
estate. 

If a more extensive accommodation be necessary, 
than the size of this house can afford, its style will 
admit of a wing, of any desirable length, on each side, 
in place of the rear part of the side verandas, without 
prejudice to its character or effect. Indeed, such wings 
may add to its dignity, and consequence, as comport- 
ing with the standing and influence which its occupant 
may hold in the community wherein he resides. A 
man of mark, indeed, should, if he live in the country, 
occupy a dwelling somewhat indicating the position 
which he holds, both in society and in public affairs. 
By this remark, we may be treading on questionable 
ground, in our democratic country ; but, practically, 
there is a fitness in it which no one can dispute. Not 
that extravagance, pretension, or any other assumption 
of superiority should mark the dwelling of the distin- 
guished man, but that his dwelling be of like character 
with himself: plain, dignified, solid, and, as a matter 
of course, altogether respectable. 

It is a happy feature in the composition of our repub- 
lican institutions, both social and political, that we can 
afford to let the flashy men of the day not of time 
flaunter in all their purchased fancy in house-building, 
without prejudice to the prevailing sober sentiment of 
their neighbors, in such particulars. The man of 
money, simply, may build his " villa," and squander 
his tens of thousands upon it. He may riot within it, 
and fidget about it for a few brief years ; he may even 



168 RUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

hang his coat of arms upon it, if he can fortunately do 
so without stumbling over a lapstone, or greasing his 
coat against the pans of a cook-shop ; but it is equally 
sure that no child of his will occupy it after him, even 
if his own changeable fancy or circumstances permit 
him to retain it for his natural life. Such are the 
episodes of country house-building, and of frequent 
attempts at agricultural life, by those who affect it as a 
matter of ostentation or display. For the subjects of 
these, we do not write. But there is something exceed- 
ingly grateful to the feelings of one of stable views in 
life, to look upon an estate which has been long in an 
individual family, still maintaining its primitive char- 
acter and respectability. Some five-and-twenty years 
ago, w r hen too young to have any established opinions 
in matters of this sort, as we were driving through one 
of the old farming towns in Massachusetts, about twenty 
miles west of Boston, we approached a comfortable, 
well-conditioned farm, with a tavern-house upon the 
high road, and several great elms standing about it. 
The road passed between two of the trees, and from a 
cross-beam, lodged across their branches, swung a 
large square sign, with names and dates painted upon 
it name and date we have forgotten ; it was a good 
old Puritan name, however in this wist: 

" JOHN ENDICOTT, 1652." 
"JonN ENDICOTT, 1696." 
" JOHN ENDICOTT, 1749." 
"JOHN ENDICOTT, 1784." 
" JOHN ENDICOTT, 1817." 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 169 

As our eyes read over this list, we were struck with 
the stability of a family who for many consecutive 
generations had occupied, by the same name, that ven- 
erable spot, and ministered to the comfort of as many 
generations of travelers, and incontinently took off' our 
hat in respect to the record of so much worth, drove 
our horse under the shed, had him fed, went in, and 
took a quiet family dinner with the civil, good-tempered 
host, and the equally kind-mannered hostess, then in 
the prime of life, surrounded with a fine family of 
children, and heard from his own lips the history of 
his ancestors, from their first emigration from Eng- 
land not in the Mayflower, to whose immeasurable 
accommodations our good New England ancestors are 
so prone to refer but in one of her early successors. 

All over the old thirteen states, from Maine to Geor- 
gia, can be found agricultural estates now containing 
families, the descendants of those who founded them 
exceptions to the general rule, we admit, of American 
stability of residence, but none the less gratifying to 
the contemplation of those who respect a deep love of 
home, wherever it may be found. For the moral 
of our episode on this subject, we cannot refrain from 
a description of a fine old estate which we have fre- 
quently seen, minus now the buildings which then 
existed, and long since supplanted by others equally 
respectable and commodious, and erected by the suc- 
cessor of the original occupant, the late Dr. Boyls- 
ton, of Roxbury, who long made the farm his sum- 
mer residence. The description is from an old work, 
"The History of the County of "Worcester, in the 



170 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

State of Massachusetts, by the Rev. Peter Whitney, 
1793 : " 

" Many of the houses (in Princeton,) are large and 
elegant. This leads to a particular mention, that in 
this town is the country seat of the Hon. Moses Gill, 
Esq., (' Honorable ' meant something in those days,) 
who has been from the year 1775 one of the Judges of 
the Court of Common Pleas for the county of Worces- 
ter, and for several years a counsellor of this common- 
wealth. His noble and elegant seat is about one mile 
and a quarter from the meeting-house, to the south. 
The farm contains upwards of three thousand acres. 
The county road from Princeton to Worcester passes 
through it, in front of the house, which faces to the 
west. The buildings stand upon the highest land of 
the whole farm ; but it is level round about them for 
many rods, and then, there is a very gradual descent. 
The land on which these buildings stand is elevated 
between twelve hundred and thirteen hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, as the Hon. James Win- 
throp, Esq. informs me. The mansion house is large, 
being 50x50 feet, with four stacks of chimnies. The 
farm house is 40 feet by 36 : In a line with this stand 
the coach and chaise-house, 50 feet by 36. This is 
joined to the barn by a shed 70 feet in length the 
barn is 200 feet by 32. Yery elegant fences are 
erected around the mansion house, the out-houses, and 
the garden. 

" The prospect from this seat is extensive and grand, 
taking in a horizon to the east, of seventy miles, at 
least. The blue hills in Milton are discernible with 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 171 

the naked eye, from the windows of this superb edifice, 
distant not less than sixty miles ; as also the waters in 
the harbor of Boston, at certain seasons of the year. 
When we view this seat, these buildings, and this farm 
of so many hundred acres, now under a high degree of 
profitable cultivation, and are told that in the year 
1766 it was a perfect wilderness, we are struck with 
wonder, admiration, and astonishment. The honorable 
proprietor thereof must have great satisfaction in con- 
templating these improvements, so extensive, made 
under his direction, and, I may add, by his own active 
industry. Judge Gill is a gentleman of singular viva- 
city and activity, and indefatigable in his endeavors to 
bring forward the cultivation of his lands ; of great 
and essential service, by his example, in the employ- 
ment he finds for so many persons, and in all his 
attempts to serve the interests of the place where he 
dwells, and in his acts of private munificence, and 
public generosity, and deserves great respect and es- 
teem, not only from individuals, but from the town 
and country he has so greatly benefited, and especially 
by the ways in which he makes use of that vast estate 
wherewith a kind Providence has blessed him." 

Such was the estate, and such the man who founded 
and enjoyed it sixty years ago; and many an equal 
estate, founded and occupied by equally valuable men, 
then existed, and still exist in all our older states ; and 
if our private and public virtues are preserved, will 
ever exist in every state of our union. Such pictures, 
too, are forcible illustrations of the morals of correct 
building on the ample estates of many of our American 



172 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

planters and farmers. The mansion house, which is so 
graphically described, we saw but a short time before 
it was pulled down then old, and hardly worth 
repairing, being built of wood, and of style something 
like this design of our own, bating the extent of 
veranda. 

The cost of this house may be from $5000 to $8000, 
depending upon the material of which it is constructed, 
the degree of finish given to it, and the locality where 
it is built. All these circumstances are to be consid- 
ered, and the estimates should be made by practical 
and experienced builders, who are competent judges 
in whatever appertains to it. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 175 



DESIGN VII. 

A PLANTATION HOUSE. Another southern house is 
here presented, quite different in architectural design 
from the last, plain, unpretending, less ornate in its 
finish, as well as less expensive in construction. It 
may occupy a different site, in a hilly, wooded coun- 
try of rougher surface, but equally becoming it, as 
the other would more fitly grace the level prairie, 
or spreading plain in the more showy luxury of its 
character. 

This house stands 46x44 feet on the ground, two 
stories high, with a full length veranda, 10 feet wide 
in front, and a half length one above it, connecting 
with the main roof by an open gable, under which is a 
railed gallery for summer repose or recreation, or to 
enjoy the scenery upon which it may open. The roof 
is broad and overhanging, thoroughly sheltering the 
walls, and giving it a most protected, comfortable look. 
Covering half the rear is a lean-to, with shed roof, 16 
feet wide, communicating with the servants' offices in 
the wing, the hall of which opens upon a low veranda 
on its front, and leading to the minor conveniences of 
the establishment. The main servants' building is 
30x20 feet, one and a half stories high, with a roof in 
keeping with the main dwelling, and a chimney in 



176 KTJRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

the center. In rear of this is attached a wood-house, 
with a shed roof, thus sloping off, and giving it a 
reposed, quiet air from that point of view. A narrow 
porch, 23 feet long and 8 feet wide, also shades the 
remaining rear part of the main dwelling, opening on 
to the approach in rear. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door opens into a hall 34 feet long and 10 
feet wide, with a flight of stairs. On the left of this 
opens a parlor or dining-room, 22x18 feet, lighted by 
two windows in front and one on the side, and connect- 
ing with the dining-room beyond, which is 18x16 feet, 
with two small dining closets between. The dining- 
room has two windows opening on to the rear veranda. 
Under the cross flight of stairs in the hall, a partition 
separates it from the rear hall, into which is a door. 
On the right of the entrance hall is a library, 18x18 
feet, lighted by three windows. At the farther end 
is a closet, and by the side of it a small entry leading 
into the nursery or family bedroom, 18x15 feet in size, 
which also has a corresponding closet with the library. 
On the rear of the nursery is a flight of back stairs 
opening from it. Under these stairs, at the other end 
a door opens to another flight leading into the cellar 
below. A door also leads out from the nursery into 
the rear passage, to the offices; another door on the 
further side of the room opens into the rear hall of the 
house. The nursery should have two windows, but 



RURAL, ARCHITECTURE. 



177 




GEOUND PLAN. 



the drawing, by an error, gives only on 8. From this 
rear hall a door opens on the rear veranda, and 
another into the passage to the rear offices. This pas- 
sage is six feet wide and 34 feet long, opening at its 
left end on to the veranda, and on the right, to the 
^servants' porch, and from its rear side into three small 
rooms, 10 feet square each, the outer one of which 
may be a business room for the proprietor of the es- 
tate; the next, a store-room for family supplies; and 
the other a kitchen closet. Each of these is lighted by 
a window on the rear. A door also lead/3 from the 



178 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



rear passage into the kitchen, 20x16 feet in area, with 
a window looking out in front and two others on the 
side and rear, and a door into the wood-house. In this 
is placed a large chimney for the cooking establish- 
ment, oven, &c., &c. A flight of stairs and partition 
divides this from the wash-room, which is 14x14 feet, 
with two windows in the side, and a door into the 
wood-house. This wood-house is open on two sides, 
and a water-closet is in the far corner. The small 
veranda, which is six feet wide, fronting the kitchen 
apartments, opens into the bath-room, 9x6 feet, into 
which the water is drawn from the kitchen boilers 
in the adjoining chimney. Still beyond this is the 
entrance to the water-closets, 6x5 feet. 



10X10 I 



18X16- 



18X14 



13X18 



18X16 



18 X 



PLATFORM. 



CHAMBEK PLAN. 



The chamber plan is simple, and will be readily 
comprehended. If more rooms are desirable, they can 
be cut off from the larger ones. A flight of garret 
stairs may also be put in the rear chamber hall. The 



RT7BAL ABCHTTECTURE. 179 

main hall of the chambers, in connection with the 
upper veranda, may be made a delightful resort for 
the summer, where the leisure hours of the family may 
be passed in view of the scenery which the house may 
command, and thus made one of its most attractive 
features. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

"We have given less veranda to this house than to 
the last, because its style does not require it, and it is 
a cheaper and less pains-taking establishment through- 
out, although, perhaps, quite as convenient in its ar- 
rangement as the other. The veranda may, however, 
be continued round the two ends of the house, if 
required. A screen, or belt of privet, or low ever- 
greens may be planted in a circular form from the 
front right-hand corner of the dwelling, to the corres- 
ponding corner of the rear offices, enclosing a clothes 
drying yard, and cutting them off from too sightly an 
exposure from the lawn in front. The opposite end of 
the house, which may be termed its business front, 
may open to the every-day approach to the house, and 
be treated as convenience may determine. 

For the tree decoration of this establishment, ever- 
greens may come in for a share of attraction. Their 
conical, tapering points will correspond well with its 
general architecture, and add strikingly to its effect; 
otherwise the remarks already given on the subject of 
park and lawn plantation will suffice. As, however, 
in the position where this establishment is supposed to 



180 KTJEAL ARCHITECTURE. 

be erected, land is plenty, ample area should be appro- 
priated to its convenience, and no pinched or parsimo- 
nious spirit should detract from giving it the fullest 
eifect in an allowance of ground. Nor need the 
ground devoted to such purposes be at all lost, or 
unappropriated ; various uses can be made of it, yield- 
ing both pleasure and profit, to which a future chapter 
will refer; and it is one of the chief pleasures of 
retired residence to cultivate, in the right place, such 
incidental objects of interest as tend to gratify, as well 
as to instruct, in whatever appertains to the elevation 
of our thoughts, and the improvement of our condition. 
All these, in their place, should be drawn about oiir 
dwellings, to render them as agreeable and attractive 
as our ingenuity and labor may command. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 181 



LAWNS, GKOUKDS, PAKKS, AND WOODS. 



Having essayed to instruct our agricultural friends 
in the proper modes of erecting their houses, and 
providing for their convenient accommodation within 
them, a few remarks may be pardoned touching such 
collateral subjects of embellishment as may be con- 
nected with the farm residence in the way of planta- 
tions and grounds in their immediate vicinity. 

We are well aware that small farms do not permit 
any considerable appropriation of ground to waste 
purposes, as such spots are usually called which are 
occupied with wood, or the shade of open trees, near 
the dwelling. But no dwelling can be complete in all 
its appointments without trees in its immediate vicinity. 
This subject has perhaps been sufficiently discussed in 
preceding chapters ; yet, as a closing course of remark 
upon what a farm house, greater or less in extent, 
ehould be in the amount of shade given to it, a further 
suggestion or two may be permitted. There are, in 
almost all places, in the vicinity of the dwelling, por- 
tions of ground which can be appropriated to forest 
trees without detriment to other economical uses, if 
applied in the proper way. Any one who passes along 



182 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

a high road and discovers the farm house, seated ou 
the margin or in the immediate vicinity of a pleasant 
grove, is immediately struck with the peculiarly rural 
and picturesque air which it presents, and thinks to 
himself that he should love such a spot for his own 
home, without reflecting that he might equally as well 
create one of the same character. Sites already occu- 
pied, where different dispositions are made of contigu- 
ous ground, may not admit of like advantages ; and 
such are to be continued in their present arrangement, 
with such course of improvement as their circumstances 
will admit. But to such as are about to select the sites 
of their future homes, it is important to study what can 
best embellish them in the most effective shade and 
ornament. 

In the immediate vicinity of our large towns and 
cities it is seldom possible to appropriate any consider- 
able breadth of land to ornamental purposes, excepting 
rough and unsightly waste ground, more or less occu- 
pied with rock or swamp ; or plainer tracts, so sterile 
as to be comparatively worthless for cultivation. Such 
grounds, too, often lie bare of wood, and require plant- 
ing, and a course of years to cover them with trees, 
even if the proprietor is willing, or desirous to devote 
them to such purpose. Still, there are vast sections of 
our country where to economize land is not important, 
and a mixed occupation of it to both ornament and 
profit may be indulged to the extent of the owner's 
disposition. All over the United States there are 
grand and beautiful sweeps and belts of cultivated 
country, interspersed with finely-wooded tracts, which 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 183 

offer the most attractive sites for the erection of dwell- 
ings on the farms which embrace them, and that 
require only the eye and hand of taste to convert them, 
with slight labor, into the finest-wooded lawns and 
forested parks imaginable. No country whatever pro- 
duces finer trees than North America. The ever- 
greens of the north luxuriate in a grandeur scarcely 
known elsewhere, and shoot their cones into the sky to 
an extent that the stripling pines and firs, and larches 
of England in vain may strive to imitate. The elm of 
New England towers up, and spreads out its sweeping 
arms with a majesty unwonted in the ancient parks or 
forests of Europe; while its maples, and birches, and 
beeches, and ashes, and oaks, and the great white- 
armed buttonwood, make up a variety of intervening 
growth, luxuriant in the extreme. Pass on through 
the Middle States, and into the far west, and there 
they still flourish with additional kinds the tulip and 
poplar the nut-trees, in all their wide variety, with 
a host of others equally grand and imposing, inter- 
spersed; and shrub-trees innumerable, are seen every- 
where as they sweep along your path. Beyond the 
Alleghanies, and south of the great lakes, are vast 
natural parks, many of them enclosed, and dotted with 
herds of cattle ranging over them, which will show 
single trees, and clumps of forest that William the 
Conqueror would have given a whole fiefdom in his 
Hampshire spoliations to possess; while, stretching 
away toward the Gulf of Mexico, new varieties of tree 
are found, equally imposing, grand, and beautiful, 
throughout the whole vast range, and in almost every 



184 KURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

locality, susceptible of the finest possible appropriation 
to ornament and use. Many a one of these noble 
forests, and open, natural parks have been appropria- 
ted already to embellish the comfortable family estab- 
lishment which has been built either on its margin, or 
within it; and thousands more are standing, as yet 
unimproved, but equally inviting the future occupant 
to their ample protection. 

The moral influences, too, of lawns and parks around 
or in the vicinity of our dwellings, are worthy of con- 
sideration. Secluded as many a country dweller may 
be, away from the throng of society, there is a sym- 
pathy in trees which invites our thoughts, and draws 
our presence among them witn unwonted interest, and 
in frequent cases, assist materially in stamping the 
feelings and courses of our future lives always with 
pure and ennobling sentiments 

" The groves were God's first temples." 

The thoughtful man, as he passes under their shel- 
tering boughs, in the heat of summer, with uncovered 
brow, silently worships the Hand that formed them 
there, scarcely conscious that their presence thus ele- 
vates his mind to holy aspirations. Among them, the 
speculative man 

" Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones.' 

Even children, born and educated among groves of 
trees, drink in early impressions, which follow them 
for good all their days ; and, when the toils of their 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 185 

after life are passed, they love to return to these grate- 
ful coverts, and spend their remaining days amid the 
tranquillity of their presence. Men habituated to the 
wildest life, too, enjoy the woods, the hills, and the 
mountains, beyond all the captivation and excitement 
of society, and are nowhere at rest, but when in their 
communion. 

The love of forest scenery is a thing to be culti- 
vated as a high accomplishment, in those whose early 
associations have not been among them. Indeed, 
country life is tame, and intolerable, without a taste, 
either natural or acquired, for fine landscape scenery ; 
and in a land like this, where the country gives occu- 
pation to so great a proportion of its people, and a 
large share of those engaged in the active and ex- 
citing pursuits of populous towns, sigh and look for- 
ward to its enjoyment, every inducement should be 
offered to cultivate a taste for those things which make 
one of its- chief attractions. ISTor should seclusion from 
general society, and a residence apart from the bus- 
tling activity of the world, present a bar to the due 
cultivation of the taste in many subjects supposed 
to belong only to the throng of association. It 'is one 
of the advantages of rural life, that it gives us time 
to think; and the greatest minds of whose labors in 
the old world we have had the benefit, and of later 
times, in our own land, have been reared chiefly in 
the solitude of the country. Patrick Henry loved to 
range among the woods, admiring the leafy magnif- 
icence of nature, and to follow the meandering courses 
of the brooks, with his hook and line. Washington, 



J86 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

/ 

when treading the vast solitudes of central Yirginia, 
with his surveyor's instruments on his back, conceived 
the wonderful resources of the great empire of which 
he will ever be styled the "father." The dwelling of 
the late John C. Calhoun, sheltered by noble trees, 
stands on an elevated swell of a grand range of moun- 
tain land, and it was there that his prolific genius 
ripened for those burning displays of thought which 
drew to him the affections of admiring thousands. 
Henry Clay undoubtedly felt the germ of his future 
greatness while sauntering, in his boyhood days, 
through the wild and picturesque slashes of Hanover. 
Webster, born amid the rugged hills of New Hamp- 
shire, drew the delightful relish of rural life, for which 
he is so celebrated, from the landscapes which sur- 
rounded his early home, and laid the foundation of his 
mighty intellect in the midst of lone and striking 
scenery. Bryant could never have written his "Than- 
atopsis," his "Rivulet," and his "Green River," but 
from the inspiration drawn from his secluded youthful 
home in the mountains of Massachusetts. Nor, to 
touch a more sacred subject, could Jonathan Edwards 
ever have composed his masterly " Treatise on the 
Will," in a pent-up city ; but owes his enduring fame 
to the thought and leisure which he found, while min- 
istering, among the sublime mountains of the Housa- 
tonic, to a feeble tribe of Stockbridge Indians. 

And these random names are but a few of those 
whose love of nature early imbibed, and in later life 
enjoyed in their own calm and retired homes, amid 
the serene beauty of woods and waters, which might 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 187 

be named, as illustrations of the influence which fine 
ecenerj may exercise upon the mind, to assist in mould- 
ing it to greatness. The following anecdote was told 
us many years ago, by a venerable man in Connec- 
ticut, a friend of the elder Hillhouse, of New Haven, 
to whom that city is much indebted for the magnifi- 
cent trees by which it has become renowned as " the 
City of the Elms : " While a member of the General 
Assembly of that state, when Hillhouse was in Con- 
gress, learning that he had just returned home from 
the annual session, our informant, with a friend, went 
to the residence of the statesman, to pay him a visit. 
He had returned only that morning, and on their way 
there, they met him near his house, with a stout young 
tree on his shoulder, just taken from a neighboring 
piece of forest, which he was about to transplant in the 
place of one which had died during his absence. After 
the usual salutations, our friend expressed his surprise 
that he was so scon engaged in tree-planting, before 
he had even had time to look to his private and more 
pressing affairs. "Another day may be too late," 
replied the senator; "my tree well planted, it will 
grow at its leisure, and I can then look to my own 
concerns at my ease. So, gentlemen, if you will just 
wait till the tree is set, we '11 walk into the house, and 
settle the affairs of state in our own way." 

Walter Scott, whose deep love of park and forest 
scenery has stamped with his masterly descriptions, his 
native land as the home of all things beautiful and 
useful in trees and plantations, spent a great share of 
his leisure time in planting, and has written a most 



188 KUEAL ARCHITECTUKE. 

instructive e^say on its practice and benefits. He puts 
into the mouth of " the Laird of Dumbiedikes," tho 
advice, " Be aye sticking in a tree, Jock ; it will be 
growing while you are sleeping." But Walter Scott 
had no American soil, to plant his trees upon ; nor do 
the grandest forest parks of Scotland show a tithe of 
the luxuriance and majesty of our American forests. 
Could he but have seen the variety, the symmetry, 
and the vast size of our oaks, and elms, and ever- 
greens, a new element of descriptive power would 
have grown out of the admiration they had created 
within him ; and he would have envied a people the 
possession of such exhaustless resources as we enjoy, to 
embellish their homes in the best imaginable manner, 
with such enduring monuments of grace and beauty. 
To the miscellaneous, or casual reader, such course of 
remark may appear merely sublimated nonsense. No 
matter ; we are not upon stilts, talking down to a class 
of inferior men, in a condescending tone, on a sub- 
ject above their comprehension ; but we are address- 
ing men, and the sons of men, who are our equals 
although, like ourself, upon their farms, taking their 
share in its daily toils, as well as pleasures and can 
perfectly well understand our language, and sympa- 
thize with our thoughts. They are the thoughts of 
rural life everywhere. It was old Sam Johnson, the 
great lexicographer, who lumbered his unwieldy gait 
through the streets of cities for a whole life, and with 
all his vast learning and wisdom, had no appreciation 
of the charms of the country, that said, " Who feeds 
fat cattle should himself be fat; " as if the dweller on 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 189 

the farm should not possess an idea above the brutes 
around him. We wonder if he ever supposed a mer- 
chant should have any more brain than the parcel that 
he handled, or the bale which he rolled, or directed 
others to roll for him ! But, loving the solitude of the 
farm, and finding a thousand objects of interest and 
beauty scattered in profusion, where those educated 
among artificial objects would see nothing beyond 
things, to them, vulgar and common-place, in convers- 
ing with our rural friends upon what concerns their 
daily comfort, and is to constitute the nursery of those 
who succeed them, and on the influences which may, 
in a degree, stamp their future character, we cannot 
forbear such suggestions, connected with the family 
Home, as may induce them to cultivate all those acces- 
sories around it, which may add to their pleasure and 
contentment. We believe it was Keats, who said, 

" A tiling of Beauty is a joy for ever." 

And the thought that such " beauty " has been of our 
own creation, or that our own hands have assisted in 
its perpetuation, should certainly be a deep "joy" of 
our life. 

We have remarked, that the farm house is the chief 
nursery on which our broad country must rely for that 
healthy infusion of stamina and spirit into those men 
who, under our institutions, guide its destiny and 
direct its councils. They, in the great majority of 
their numbers, are natives of the retired homestead. 
It is, therefore, of high consequence, that good taste, 
intelligence, and. correct judgment, should enter into 



190 ETJRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

all that surrounds the birth-place, and early see nes oi 
those who are to be the future actors in the prominent 
walks of life, either in public or private capacity ; and 
as the love of trees is one of the leading elements of 
enjoyment amid the outward scenes of country-life, we 
commend most heartily all who dwell in the pure air 
and bright sunshine of the open land to their study 
and cultivation. 

Every man who lives in the country, be he a prac- 
tical farmer or not, should plant trees, more or less. 
The father of a family should plant, for the benefit of 
his children, as well as for his own. The bachelor and 
the childless man should plant, if for nothing more 
than to show that he has left same living thing to per- 
petuate his memory. Boys should early be made 
planters. None but those who love trees, and plant 
them, know the serene pleasure of watching their 
growth, and anticipating their future beauty and gran- 
deur ; and no one can so exquisitely enjoy their grate- 
ful shade, as he whose hand has planted and cared for 
them. Planting, too, is a most agreeable pastime to 
a reflecting mind. It may be ranked among the pleas- 
ures, instead of the toils of life. We have always so 
found it. There is no pleasanter sight of labor than 
to see a father, with his young lads about him, plant- 
ing a tree. It becomes a landmark of their industry 
and good taste ; and no thinking man passes a planta- 
tion of fine trees but inwardly blesses the man, or the 
memory of the man who placed them there. 

Aside from all this, trees properly distributed, give 
a value to an estate far beyond the cost of planting, 



RUBA.L ARCHITECTURE. 191 

and tending their growth, and which no other equal 
amount of labor and expense upon it can confer. 
Innumerable farms and places have been sold at high 
prices, over those of perhaps greater producing value, 
merely for the trees which embellished them. Thus, 
in a pecuniary light, to say nothing of the pleasure 
and luxury they confer, trees are a source of profitable 
investment. 

It is a happy feature in the improving rural character 
of our country, that tree-planting and tree preservation 
for some years past have attracted much more attention 
than formerly ; and with this attention a better taste is 
prevailing in their selection. We have gained but 
little in the introduction of many of the foreign trees 
among us, for ornament. Some of them are absolutely 
barbarous in comparison with our American forest 
trees, and their cultivation is only a demonstration of 
the utter want of good taste in those who apply them. 

For ordinary purposes, but few exotics should be 
tolerated ; and those chiefly in collections, as curiosi- 
ties, or for arboretums in which latter the farmer can- 
not often indulge; and for all the main purposes of 
shade, and use, and ornament, the trees of no country 
can equal our own. 

Varied as our country is, in soils and climates, no 
particular directions can be given as to the individual 
varieties of tree which are to be preferred for planting. 
Each locality has its own most appropriate kinds, and 
he who is to plant, can best make the selections most 
fitted to his use. Rapid-growing trees, when of fine 
symmetry, and free from bad habits in throwing up 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

suckers ; not liable to the attacks of insects ; of early, 
dense, and long-continued foliage, are most to be 
commended ; while their opposites in character should 
be avoided in all well-kept grounds. It requires, in- 
deed, but a little thought and observation to guide 
every one in the selection which he should make, to 
produce the best effect of which the tree itself is 
capable. 

Giving the importance we have, to trees, and their 
planting, it may be supposed that we should discuss 
their position in the grounds to which they should be 
appropriated. But no specific directions can be given 
at large. All this branch of the subject must be left 
to the locality, position, and surface of the ground 
sought to be improved. A good tree can scarcely 
stand in a wrong place, when not injurious to a build- 
ing by its too dense shade, or shutting out its light, or 
prospect. Still, the proper disposition of trees is a 
study, and should be well considered before they be 
planted. Bald, unsightly spots should be covered by 
them, when not devoted to more useful objects of the 
farm, either in pasturage or cultivation. A partial 
shading of the soil by trees may add to its value for 
grazing purposes, like the woodland pastures of Ken- 
tucky, where subject to extreme droughts, or a scorch 
ing sun. 

If the planter feels disposed to consult authorities, as 
to the best disposition of his trees, works on Landscape 
Gardening may be studied ; but these can give only 
general hints, and the only true course is to strive to 
make his grounds look as much like nature herself as 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 193 

possible for nature seldom makes mistakes in her 
designs. To conclude a course of remark, which the 
plain farmer, cultivating his land for its yearly profit 
alone, may consider as foreign to the subject of our 
work, we would not recommend any one to plant trees 
who is not willing to spend the necessary time to nurse 
and tend them afterward, till they are out of harm's 
way, and well established in a vigorous growth. All 
this must be taken into the account, for it is better to 
have even but a few trees, and those what trees should 
be, than a whole forest of stinted things, writhing and 
pining through a course of sickly existence. 

A chapter might also be written upon the proper 
mode of taking up and planting trees, but as this 
would lead us to a subject more directly belonging to 
another department, the proper authorities on that 
head must be co isulted. 



194 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



FRUIT GARDEN- -ORCHARDS. 



As the fruit garden and orchards are usually near 
appendages to the dwelling and out-buildings, a few 
remarks as to their locality and distribution may be 
appropriate. The first should always be near the 
house, both for convenience in gathering its fruits, and 
for its due protection from the encroachments of those 
not entitled to its treasures. It should, if possible, 
adjoin the kitchen garden, for convenience of access ; 
as fruit is, or should be, an important item in the daily 
consumption of every family where it can be grown 
and afforded. A sheltered spot, if to be had, should 
be devoted to this object ; or if not, its margin, on the 
exposed side, should be set with the hardiest trees to 
which it is appropriated as the apple. The fruit gar- 
den, proper, may also contain the smaller fruits, as 
they are termed, as the currant, gooseberry, raspberry, 
and whatever other shrub-fruits are grown ; while the 
quince, the peach, the apricot, nectarine, plum, cherry, 
pear, and apple may, in the order they are named, 
stand in succession behind them, the taller and more 
hardy growth of each successive variety rising ' gher, 
and protecting its less hardy and aspiring nj ^hbor. 
The soil for all these varieties of tree is supposed to be 



EUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 195 

congenial, and our remarks will only be directed to 
their proper distribution. 

The aspect for the fruit garden should, if possible, 
front the south, south-east, or south-west, in a northerly 
climate. In the Middle and Southern States the ex- 
posure is of less consequence. Currants, gooseberries 
raspberries, &c., should, for their most productive bear 
ing, and the highest quality of their fruits, be set at 
least four feet apart, in the rows, and the rows six feet 
distant from each other, that there may be abundant 
room to cultivate them with the plow, and kept clean 
of weeds and grass. The quince, peach, apricot, nec- 
tarine, and plum should be 16 feet apart each way. 
The pear, if on quince stock, may be 12 feet apart, and 
if on its own stock, 20 to 24 feet; while the apple 
should always be 30 to 36 feet apart, to let in the 
requisite degree of sun and air to ripen as well as give 
growth, color, and flavor to its fruit. The tendency of 
almost all planters of fruit trees is to set them too 
close, and many otherwise fine fruit gardens are utterly 
ruined by the compact manner in which they are 
planted. Trees are great consumers of the atmosphere ; 
every leaf is a lung, inhaling and respiring the gases, 
and if sufficient breathing room be not allowed them, 
the tree sickens, and pines for the want of it ; there- 
fore, every fruit tree, and fruit-bearing shrub should 
be so placed that the summer sun can shine on every 
part of its surface at some hour of the day. In such 
position, the fruit will reach its maximum of flavor, 
size, and perfection. 

The ground, too, should be rich; and, to have the 



196 BUBAL ABCHTTECTUKE. 

greatest benefit of the soil, no crops should be grown 
among the trees, after they have arrived at their full 
maturity of bearing. Thus planted, and nursed, with 
good selections of varieties, both the fruit garden and 
the orchard become one of the most ornamental, as 
well as most profitable portions of the farm. 

In point of position, as affecting the appearance of 
the homestead, the fruit garden should stand on the 
weatJier-s'lde of the dwelling, so as, although protected, 
in its several varieties, by itself, when not altogether 
sheltered by some superior natural barrier, it should 
appear to shelter both the dwelling and kitchen gar- 
dens, which adjoin them. 

As this is a subject intended to be but incidentally 
touched in these pages, and only then as immediately 
connected in its general character with the dwelling 
house and its attachments, we refrain from going into 
any particulars of detail concerning it. It is also a 
subject to which we are strongly attached, and gladly 
would we have a set chat with our readers upon it ; 
but as the discussion for so broad a field as we should 
have to survey, would be in many points arbitrary, 
and unfitting to local information as to varieties, and 
particular cultivation, we refer the reader, with great 
pleasure, to the several treatises of Downing, and 
Thomas, and Barry, on this interesting topic, with 
which the public are fortunately in possession ; observ- 
ing, only, that there is no one item of rural economy 
to which our attention can be given, which yields more 
of luxury, health, and true enjoyment, both to the 
body and the mind, than the cultivation of good fruits. 



RURAL ABCHITECTUKE. 197 



HOW TO LAY OUT A KITCHEN GAKDEN. 



The kitchen garden yields more necessaries and com- 
forts to the family, than any other piece of ground on 
the premises. It is, of consequence, necessary that it 
be so located and planned as to be ready of access, 
and yield the greatest possible quantity of products 
for the labor bestowed upon it; and as locality and 
plan have much to do with the labor bestowed upon 
it and the productions it may yield, both these sub- 
jects should be considered. 

As to locality, the kitchen garden should lie in the 
warmest and most sheltered spot which may be con- 
venient to the kitchen of the house. It should, in 
connection with that, be convenient of access to the 
dung-yards of the stables. The size may be such as 
your necessities or your convenience may demand. 
The shape, either a parallelogram or a square ; for it 
will be recollected, that this is a place allotted, not for 
a show or pleasure ground, but for profit. If the gar- 
den be large, this shape will better allow the use of the 
plow to turn up the soil, which, in a large garden, is a 
much cheaper, and, when properly done, a better mode 



198 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



than to spade it ; and if small, and it be worked with 
the spade, right lines are easier made with the spade 
than curved ones. One or more walks, at least eight 
feet wide, should be made, leading from a broad gate, 
or bars, through which a cart and horse, or oxen, may 
enter, to draw in manure, or carry out the vegetables ; 
and if such walk, or walks, do not extend around the 
garden, which, if in a large one, they should do, a 
sufficient area should be thrown out at the farther ex- 
tremity, to turn the cart upon. If the soil be free, and 
stony, the stones should be taken out dean, when 
large and if small, down to the size of a hen's egg 
and the surface made as level as possible, for a loose 
soil will need no draining. If the soil be a clay, or 
clayey loam, it should be underdrained two and a half 
feet, to tie perfect, and the draining so planned as to 
lead off to a lower spot outside. This draining warms 
the soil, opens it for filtration, and makes it friable. 
Then, properly fenced, thoroughly manured, and plowed 
deep, and left rough no matter how rough in the 
fall of the year, and as late before the setting in of 
winter as you dare risk it, that part of the preparation 
is accomplished. 

The permanent or wide walks of the garden, after 
being laid out and graded, should never be plowed nor 
disturbed, except by the hoe and rake, to keep down 
the weeds and grass ; yet, if a close, and well-shorn 
grass turf be kept upon them, it is perhaps the cheap- 
est and most cleanly way of keeping the walks. They 
need only cutting off close with the hand-hook, in 
summer. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 199 

"We have known a great many people, after laying 
out a kitchen garden, and preparing it for use, fill it 
up with fruit trees, supposing that vegetables will grow 
quite as well with them as without. This is a wide 
mistake. No tree larger than a currant or gooseberry 
lush should ever stand in a vegetable garden. These 
fruits being partially used in the cooking department, 
as much in the way of vegetables, as of fruits, and 
small in size, may be permitted ; and they, contrary 
to the usual practice, should always stand in open 
ground, where they can have all the benefits of the 
sun and rain to ripen the fruit to perfection, as well as 
to receive the cultivation they need, instead of being 
placed under fences around the sides of the garden, 
where they are too frequently neglected, and become 
the resort of vermin, or make prolific harbors for weeds. 

Along the main walks, or alleys, the borders for 
perennial plants, as well as the currant and gooseberry 
bushes, should be made 'for the plow should run par- 
allel to, and not at right angles with them. Here may 
stand the rhubarbs, the sea kales, the various herbs, or 
even the asparagus beds, if a particular quarter be not 
set apart for them ; and, if it be important, a portion 
of these main borders may be appropriated to the 
more common flowers and small shrubbery, if desired 
to cultivate them in a plain way ; but not a peach, 
apricot, or any other larger tree than a currant or rasp- 
berry, should come within it. They not only shade 
the small plants, but suck up and rob them of their 
food and moisture, and keep off the sun, and prevent 
the circulation of air than which nothing needs all 



200 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

these more than garden vegetables, to have them ii 
high perfection. If it be necessary, by means of i 
cold exposure on the one side, to have a close planta- 
tion of shrubbery to screen the garden, let it be out- 
side the fence, rather than within it ; but if within, let 
there be a broad walk between such shrubbery and 
the garden beds, as their roots will extend under the 
vegetables, and rob them of their food. 

A walk, alley, or cartway, on the sides of the gar- 
den, is always better next to the fence, than to fill that 
space with anything else, as it is usually shaded for a 
portion of the day, and may be better afforded for such 
waste purposes than the open, sunny ground within. 

It will be observed that market gardeners, men who 
always strive to make the most profit from their land 
and labor, and obtain the best vegetables, cultivate 
them in open fields. Not a tree, nor even a bush is 
permitted to stand near the growing crop, if they can 
prevent it ; and where one is not stinted in the area of 
his domain, their example should be followed. 

A word upon plowing gardens. Clays, or clayey 
loams, should always be manured and plowed in the 
fall, just before the setting in of the winter frosts. A 
world of pounding and hammering of lumps, to make 
them fine, in spring, is saved by fall plowing, besides 
incorporating the manure more thoroughly with the 
soil, as well as freezing out and destroying the eggs of 
worms and insects which infest it. Thrown up deeply 
and roughly with the plow or spade, the frosts act 
mechanically upon the soil, and slack and pulverise 
it so thoroughly that a heavy raking in early spring, is 



KUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 201 

all that becomes necessary to put it in the finest con- 
dition for seeds, and make it perhaps the very best and 
most productive of all garden soils whatever. A light 
sandy loam is better to lie compact in winter, and 
manured and turned up in early spring. Its friable 
nature leaves it always open and light, and at all times 
in the absence of frost, accessible to the spade or the 
hoe. On these accounts, it is usually the most desir- 
able and convenient soil for the kitchen garden, and 
on the whole, generally preferred where either kind 
may be a matter simply of choice. 



202 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



FLOWERS. 



Start not, gentle reader ! "We are not about to in- 
flict upon you a dissertation on Pelargoniums, Calla- 
Ethiopias, Japonicas, and such like unmentionable 
terms, that bring to your mind the green-house, and 
forcing-house, and all the train of expense and vexa- 
tion attending them; but we desire to have a short 
familiar conversation about what is all around you, or 
if not around you, should be, and kept there, with 
very little pains or labor on your part. Still, if you 
dislike the subject, just hand this part of our book 
over to your excellent wife, or daughters, or sisters, as 
the case may be, and we will talk to them about this 
matter. 

Flowers have their objects, and were made for our 
use and pleasure ; otherwise, God would never have 
strewed them, as he has, so bountifully along our paths, 
and filled the world with their fragrance and beauty. 
Like all else beautiful, which He made, and pro- 
nounced "good," flowers have been objects of ad- 
miration and love since man's creation; and their 
cultivation has ever been a type of civilization and 
refinement among all people who have left written 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 203 

records behind them. Flowers equally become the 
cottage and the palace, in their decoration. The hum- 
blest cottager, and the mightiest monarch, have equally 
admired their beauty and their odor ; and the whole 
train of mortals between, have devoted a portion of 
their time and thoughts to the development of their 
peculiar properties. 

But let that pass. Plain country people as we are, 
there are enough of sufficient variety all around us, 
to engage our attention, and give us all that we desire 
to embellish our homes, and engage the time which 
we have to devote to them. Among the* wild flowers, 
in the mountains and hills of the farthest North, on 
the margin of their hidden brooks, where 

" Floats the scarc-rooted watercress ; " 

and on their barren sides, the tiny violet and the 
laurel bloom, each in their season, with unwonted 
beauty ; and, sloping down on to the plains beneath, 
blush out in all their summer garniture, the wild rose 
and the honeysuckle. On, through the Middle States, 
the lesser flowers of early spring throw out a thousand 
brilliant dyes, and are surrounded by a host of sum- 
mer plants, vieing with each other in the exuberance 
of their tints. On the AUeghanies, through all their 
vast range, grow up the magnificent dogwood, kal- 
mia, and rhodendendron, spangling mile upon mile of 
their huge sides and tops with white, and covering 
crags and precipices of untold space with their blushing 
splendor. Further west, on the prairies, and oak open- 
ings, and in the deep woods, too, of the great lakes, 






204 EUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and of the Mississippi valley, with the earliest grass, 
shoot up, all over the land, a succession of flowers, 
which in variety and profusion of shape, and color, 
and odor, outvie all the lilies of the gardens of Solo- 
mon ; and so they continue till the autumnal frosts cut 
down both grass and flower alike. Further south, 
along the piney coast, back through the hills and over 
the vast reach of cotton and sugar lands, another class 
of flowers burst out from their natural coverts in equal 
glory ; and the magnolia, and the tulip-tree, and the 
wild orange throw a perfume along the air, like the 
odors of Palestine. In the deep lagoons of the south- 
ern rivers, too, float immense water-lilies, laying their 
great broad leaves, and expanded white and yellow 
flowers, upon the surface, which the waters of the Nile 
in the days of Cleopatra never equaled. And these 
are nature's wild productions only. 

Flowers being cultivated, not for profit, but for show 
and amusement, need not intrude upon the time which 
is required to the more important labors of the farm. 
A little time, given at such hours when it can be best 
spared, will set all the little flower-beds in order, and 
keep the required shrubbery of the place in trim and 
should not be denied in any family who enjoy a taste 
for them. Even the simplest of their kind, when 
carefully disposed, produce a fine effect; and the hardy 
bulbous, and tuberous-rooted plants require but slight 
aid in producing the highest perfection of their bloom ; 
while the fibrous-rooted perenials, and the flowering 
shrubs, bloom on from year to year, almost uncared for 
and untouched. 






BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 205 

The annuals require the most attention. Their seeds 
must be planted and gathered every year ; they must 
be weeded and nursed with more care than the others ; 
yet they richly repay all this trouble in their fresh 
bloom when the others are gone, and will carry their 
rich flowers far into the frosts of autumn, when their 
hardier companions have composed themselves for a 
winter's rest. 

The position of the flower-bed, or borders, may be 
various. As a matter of taste, however, they should 
be near the house, and in view of the windows of the 
most frequented rooms. They thus give more enjoy- 
ment in their sight, than when but occasionally seen 
in special visits ; and such spots can usually be set 
apart for them. If not in the way of more important 
things, they should always be thus placed, where they 
are ever objects of interest and attraction. 

The ground which flowering plants occupy should 
be devoted to them alone, and the soil be made deep 
and rich. They should not be huddled up, nor crowded, 
but stand well apart, and have plenty of breathing- 
room for their branches and leaves, and space for the 
spread of their roots. They are consumers of the fer- 
tilizing gases, and require, equally with other plants, 
their due supply of manures which also adds to the 
brilliance and size of their bloom, as well as to the 
growth of their stems. Their roots should be protected 
in winter by coarse litter thrown over them, particu- 
larly the earlier flowering plants, as it gives them an 
early and rapid start in the spring. 

In variety, we need scarcely recommend what may 



206 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

be most desirable. The crocus, and snowdrop are 
among (if not quite) the earliest in bloom ; and to 
these follow the hyacinth, and daffodil, the jonquil, 
and many-varied family of Narcissus, the low-headed 
hearts-ease, or pansy ; with them, too, comes the flow- 
ering-almond, the lilac, and another or two flowering 
shrubs. Then follow the tulips, in all their gorgeous 
and splendid variety of single, double, and fringed. 
To these follow the great peonies, in their full, dash- 
ing colors of crimson, white and pink, and the tree- 
like snow-ball, or guelder-rose. By the side of these 
hangs out the monthly-trumpet-honeysuckle, gracing 
the columns of your veranda, porch, or window, and 
the large Siberian honeysuckle, with its white and pink 
flowers ; and along with them, the various Iris family, 
or fleur-de-lis, reminding one of France and the Bour- 
bons, the Prussian lilac, and the early phloxes. Then 
blush out, in all their endless variety of shade and 
tint, from the purest white to the deepest purple, the 
whole vast family of roses ; and in stature, from the 
humblest twig that leans its frail stem upon the ground, 
up to the hardy climber, whose delicious clusters hang 
over your chamber window ; and a month of fragrance 
and beauty of these completes the succession of bulbs, 
and tubers, and perennial plants and shrubs scores 
of which have not been noticed. 

Now commence the annuals, which may carry you 
a month further into the season, when the flaunting 
dahlia of every hue, and budding from its plant of 
every size, from the height of little Tommy, who is 
jnst toddling out with his mother to watch the first 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 207 

opening flower, up to the top of his father's hat, as he 
stands quite six feet, to hold the little fellow up to 
try to smell of another, which, like all the rest, has 
no sign of odor. Then come, after a long retinue of 
different things among which we always count the 
morning-glory, or convolvulus, running up the kitchen 
windows, the great sun-flower, which throws his 
broad disk high over the garden fence, always cheerful, 
and always glowing the brilliant tribe of asters, 
rich, varied, and beautiful, running far into the autum- 
nal frosts ; and, to close our floral season, the chrysan- 
themum, which, well cared-for, blooms out in the open 
air, and, carefully taken up and boxed, will stay with 
ns, in the house, till Christmas. Thus ends the bloom- 
ing year. Now, if you would enjoy a pleasure per- 
fectly pure, which has no alloy, save an occasional 
disappointment by casualty, and make home interest- 
ing beyond all other places, learn first to love, then to 
get, and next to cultivate flowers. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



FAKM COTTAGES. 



Altogether too little attention has been paid in our 
country to these most useful appendages to the farm, 
both in their construction and appearance. Nothing 
adds more to the feeling of comfort, convenience, and 
home expression in the farm, than the snug-built labor- 
ers' cottage upon it. The cottage also gives the farm 
an air of respectability and dignity. The laborer 
should, if not so sumptuously, be as comfortably 
housed and sheltered as his employer. This is quite 
as much to the interest of such employer as it is bene- 
ficial to the health and happiness of the laborer. 
Building is so cheap in America, that the difference in 
cost between a snugly-finished cottage, and a rickety, 
open tenement, is hardly to be taken into consideration, 
as compared with the higher health, and increased 
enjoyment of the laborer and his family ; while every 
considerate employer knows that cheerfulness and 
contentment of disposition, which are perhaps more 
promoted by good home accommodations for the work- 
ingman than by any other influence, are strong incen- 
tives to increased labor on his part, and more fidelity 
f i its application. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 209 

A landed estate, of whatever extent, with its re- 
spectable farm house, in its own expressive style of 
construction, relieved and set off by its attendant cot- 
tages, either contiguous, or remote, and built in their 
proper character, leaves nothing wanting to fill the 
picture upon which one loves to gaze in the contem- 
plation of country life; and without these last in 
due keeping with the chief structures of the estate, a 
blank is left in its completeness and finish. The little 
embellishments which may be given, by way of archi- 
tectural arrangement, or the conveniences in accom- 
modation, are, in almost all cases, appreciated by those 
who occupy them, and have an influence upon their 
character and conduct ; while the trifling decorations 
which may be added in the way of shrubbery, trees, 
and flowering plants, costing little or nothing in their 
planting and keeping, give a charm to the humblest 
abode. 

The position of cottages on a farm should be con- 
trolled by considerations of convenience to the place 
of labor, and a proper economy in their construction ; 
and hardly a site can be inappropriate which ensures 
these requirements. In the plans which are submitted, 
due attention has been paid to the comfort of those 
who inhabit them, as well as to picturesque effect in 
the cottage itself. Decency, order, and respectability 
are thus given to the estate, and to those who inhabit 
the cottages upon it, as well as to those whose more 
fortunate position in life has given the enjoyment 
of a higher luxury in the occupancy of its chief 
mansion. 



210 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

On all estates where the principal dwelling is located 
at any considerable distance from the public road, or 
where approached by a side road shut off from the 
highway by a gate, a small cottage, by way of lodge, 
or laborer's tenement, should be located at or near the 
entrance. Such appendage is not only ornamental in 
itself, but gives character to the place, and security to 
the enclosure ; in guarding it from improper intrusion, 
as well as to receive and conduct into the premises 
those who either reside upon, or have business within 
it. It is thus a sort of sentry-box, as well as a laborer's 
residence. 




Elevation. 



W.H.IO*|2. 



I 5 "8- 8 x8 
6- B.R. 



13.*. 12. 

H 
L. R. 



Plan. 



Page 211. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 213 



DESIGN I. 

This cottage is 10 feet high, from the sill to the 
plates, and may be built of wood, with a slight frame 
composed of sills and plates only, and planked up 
and down (vertically) and battened ; or grooved and 
tongued, and matched close together; or it may be 
framed throughout with posts . and studs, and covered 
with rough boards, and over these clapboards, and 
lathed and plastered inside. The first mode would be 
the cheapest, although not so warm and durable as the 
other, yet quite comfortable when warmed by a stove. 
On the second plan of building, it will cost near or 
quite double the amount of the first, if neatly painted. 
A small brick chimney should rest upon the floor 
overhead, in the side of which, at least a foot above 
the chamber floor, should be inserted an earthen or 
iron thimble, to receive the stovepipe and guard 
against fire ; unless a flat stone, 14 to 16 inches square, 
and 2 to 4 inches thick, with a pipe-hole which is 
the better plan should rest on the floor immediately 
over the pipe. This stone should be, also, the founda- 
tion of the chimney, which should pass immediately 
up through the ridge of the roof, and, for effect, in the 

center, longitudinally, of the house. Such position 
9* 



214 KUEAL ARCHITECTTIRE. 

will not interfere with the location of the stove, which 
may be placed in any part of the room, the pipe reach- 
ing the chimney by one or more elbows. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The main body of this cottage is 18x12 feet, with a 
lean-to, 8 feet wide, running its whole length in rear. 
This lean-to may be 8 or 9 inches lower, on the floor, 
than the main room, and divided into a passage, (lead- 
ing to an open wood-house in rear, 10x12 feet, with a 
shed roof, ) a large closet, and a bedroom, as may be 
required ; or, the passage end may be left open at the 
side, for a wood shelter, or other useful purpose. The 
roof, which is raftered, boarded, and shingled in the 
usual mode, is well spread over the gables, as well as 
over the front and rear say 18 inches. The porch 
in front will give additional convenience in summer, 
as a place to sit, or eat under, and its posts so fitted 
with grooves as to let in rough planks for winter en- 
closure in front and at one end, leaving the entrance 
only, at the least windy, or stormy side. The extra 
cost of such preparation, with the planks, which should 
be 1J or li inches thick, and jointed, would not 
exceed ten or fifteen dollars. This would make an 
admirable wood-house for the winter, and a perfect 
snuggery for a small family. While in its summer 
dress, with the porch opened the planks taken out 
and laid overhead, across the beams connecting the 
porch with the house it would present an object of 
quiet comfort and beauty. A hop vine or honeysuckle 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 215 

might be trained outside the posts, and give it all the 
shade required. 

In a stony country, where the adjoining enclosures 
are of stone, this cottage may be built of stone, also, 
at about double the cost of wood. This would save 
the expense of paint, or wash of any kind, besides the 
greater character of durability and substance it would 
add to the establishment. Trees, of course, should 
shelter it; and any little out-buildings that may be 
required should be nestled under a screen of vines 
and shrubbery near by. 

This being designed as the humblest and cheapest 
kind of cottage, where the family occupy only a single 
room, the cost would be small. On the plan first 
named, stained with a coarse wash, it could be built 
for $100. On the second plan, well-framed of sills, 
plates, posts, studs, &c. &c., covered with vertical 
boarding and battens, or clapboarded, and well painted 
in oil, it might cost $150 to $200. Stone, or brick, 
without paint, would add but little, if anything in cost 
over the last sum. The ceiling of the main floor is 8 
feet high, and a low chamber or garret is afforded 
above it, into which a swing-step ladder ascends ; and 
when not in use, it may be hung to the ceiling over- 
head by a common hook and staples. 



216 BTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 



DESIGN II. 

This cottage is a grade beyond the one just described, 
both in appearance and accommodation. It is 20x16 
feet on the ground, with a rear wing 26x8 feet in area. 
The main body is 10 feet high, to the roof, vertically 
boarded and battened. A snug, half-open (or it may 
be closed, as convenience may require,) porch shelters 
the front door, 5x4 feet in area. The cottage has a 
square or hipped roof, of a 30 pitch from a horizontal 
line, which spreads full two feet over the walls and 
bracketed beneath. The rear wing retreats two feet 
from the wall line of the main building, and has also 
a hipped roof of the same pitch as the main one, with 
eight-feet posts. The open end of the wing advances 
6 feet toward the front of the main part for wood-house 
and storage. The construction of this is in the same 
style as Design I. The windows are plain, two-sashed, 
of six lights each, 8x12 glass in front, and 8x10 in 
the rear. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door opens into a common living room, 
16x12 feet, with two windows, in which is a stove- 
chimney running up from the main floor next the par- 
tition, or placed over it in the chamber, and running 




F i 

iij K icx s 



L R 
12X16 



B R 
XIO 



Fayes ^17 218. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 219 

up tlirough the center of the roof. On one side of the 
living room is a bedroom, 10x8 feet, with two win- 
dows. Next to this bedroom is a large closet, 8x6 
feet, with one window, and shelves, and tight cupboard 
within. These rooms are 9 feet high, and over them 
is a chamber, or garret, 20x16 feet, entered by a swing 
step ladder, as in Design No. I. This garret is lighted 
by a small dormer window in the rear roof, over the 
shed or lean-to. A bed may be located in this cham- 
ber, or it may serve as a storage and lumber-room. 

The wing contains a small kitchen, in case the living 
room be not occupied for that purpose, 10x8 feet, 
lighted by a side-window, and having a small chimney 
in the rear wall. It may contain, also, a small closet, 
3 feet square. A door passes from this small kitchen 
into the wood-house, which is 16x8 feet, or with its 
advance L, 14 feet, in the extreme outer corner of 
which is a water-closet, 5x3 feet ; thus, altogether, giv- 
ing accommodation to a family of five or six persons. 

The construction of this cottage is shown as of wood. 
Other material, either brick or stone, may be used, as 
most convenient, at a not much increased cost. The 
expense of this building may be, say fifty per cent, 
higher than that of No. I, according to the finish, and 
may be sufficiently well done and painted complete for 
$300 ; which may be reduced or increased, according 
to the style of finish and the taste of the builder. 

A cellar may be made under this cottage, which 
can be reached by a trap-door from the living room, 
opening to a flight of steps below. 



220 BUBAL AKCHITEOTUKE. 



DESIGN III. 

This cottage is still in advance of No. II, in style 
and arrangement, and may accommodate not only the 
farm laborer or gardener, but will serve for a small 
farmer himself, or a village mechanic. It is in the 
French style of roof, and allied to the Italian in its 
orackets, and gables, and half-terraced front. The 
body of the cottage is 22x20 feet, with twelve-feet 
posts ; the roof has a pitch of 50 from a horizontal 
line, in its straight dimensions, curving horizontally 
toward the eaves, which, together with the gables, pro- 
ject 3 feet over the walls. The terrace in front is 5 
feet wide. On the rear is a wood-house, 18x16 feet 
in area, open at the house end, and in front, with a 
roof in same style as the main house, and posts, 8 feet 
high, standing on the ground, 2 feet below the surface 
of the cellar wall, which supports the main building. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front d^or opens, in the center of the front wall, 
into a hall, 12x8 feet, with a flight of stairs on one 
side, leading to the chamber above ; under the stairs, 
at the upper end, is a passage leading beneath them 
into the cellar. On one side of this hall is a bedroom 




W H 
18X16 




Plan. 

COTTAGE 



Pages 22122:3 



RUEAL AKCHTTECTUKE. 223 

8x10 feet, lighted by a window in front, and part of 
the hooded double window on the side. On the inner 
side, a door leads from the hall into the living room 
or kitchen, 18x12 feet. On one side of this is a bed- 
room, or pantry, as may be most desirable, 9x6 feet, 
from which leads a close closet, 3 feet square. This 
bedroom has a window on one side, next the hall. A 
door from the kitchen leads into a closet, 3 feet wide, 
which may contain a sink, and cupboard for kitchen 
wares. The living room is lighted by a part of the 
double hooded window on one side, and another on 
the rear. A door leads into the wood-house, which is 
12x16 feet, in the extreme corner of which is the 
water-closet. 5x3 feet. The rooms in this cottage are 
9 feet high. A chimney leads up from the floor of the 
living room, which may receive, in addition to its own 
fireplace, or stove, a pipe from the stove in the hall, if 
one is placed there. 

The chamber has two feet of perpendicular wall, 
and the sharp roof gives opportunity for two good 
lodging rooms, which may be partitioned off as con- 
venience may require, each lighted by a window in 
the gables, and a dormer one in the roof, for the pas- 
sage leading into them. 

The hall may serve as a pleasant sitting or dining- 
room, in pleasant weather, opening, as it does, on to 
the terrace, which is mostly sheltered by the over- 
hanging roof. 

The construction of this cottage may be of either 
stone, brick, or wood, and produce a fine effect. Al- 
though it has neither porch, nor veranda, the broad 



224: BUBAL ABOHITEOTUBE. 

eaves and gables give it a well-sheltered appearance, 
and the hooded windows on the sides throw an air of 
protection over them, quite agreeable to the eye. The 
framing of this roof is no way different, in the rafters, 
from those made on straight lines, but the curve and 
projection is given by planks cut into proper shape, 
and spiked into the rafters, and apparently supported 
by the brackets below, which should be cut from two 
to three-inch plank, to give them a heavy and substan- 
tial appearance. The windows are in casement form, 
as shown in the design, but may be changed into the 
ordinary sash form, if preferred, which is, in this 
country, usually the better way. It will be observed, 
that we have in all cases adopted the usual square' 
sided form of glass for windows, as altogether more 
convenient and economical in building, simple in re- 
pairing, and, we think, quite as agreeable in appear- 
ance, as those out-of-the-way shapes frequently adopted 
to give a more picturesque effect. 

In a hilly, mountainous, and evergreen country, this 
style of cottage is peculiarly appropriate. It takes 
additional character from bold and picturesque scenery, 
with which it is in harmony. The pine, spruce, cedar, 
or hemlock, or the evergreen laurel, planted around 
or near it, will give it increased effect, while among 
deciduous trees and shrubs, an occasional Lombardy 
poplar, and larch, will harmonize with the boldness of 
its outline. Even where hill or mountain scenery is 
wanting, plantations such as have been named, would 
render it a pleasing style of cottage, and give agree- 
able effect to its bold, sharp roof and projecting eaves 



ETTEAL ARCHITECTURE. 225 

In a snowy country, the plan of roof here presented 
is well adapted to the shedding of heavy snows, on 
which it can find no protracted lodgment. Where 
massive stone walls enclose the estate, this style of 
cottage will be in character, as comporting with that 
strong and solid air which the rustic appearance of 
stone alone can give. It may, too, receive the same 
amount of outer decoration, in its shrubbery and plan- 
tations, given to any other style of building of like 
accommodation, and with an equally agreeable effect. 



226 KUKAL ARCHITECTURE 



DESIGN IV. 

This cottage is still in advance of the last, in its 
accommodation, and is suitable for the small farmer, 
or the more liberal cottager, who requires wider room, 
and ampler conveniences than are allowed by the hith- 
erto described structures. It is a first class dwelling, 
of its kind, and, in its details and finish, may be 
adapted to a variety of occupation, while it will afford 
a sufficient amount of expenditure to gratify a liberal 
outlay, to him who chooses to indulge his taste in a 
moderate extent of decoration and embellishment. 

The ground plan of this cottage is 30x22 feet, in 
light rural-Gothic style, one and a half stories high, 
the posts 14 feet in elevation. It has two chimneys, 
passing out through the roof on each side of the ridge, 
uniformly, each with the other. The roof has a pitch 
of 45 from a horizontal line, giving it a bold and 
rather dashing appearance, and deeply sheltering the 
walls. The side gables give variety to the roof, and 
light to the chambers, and add to the finish of its 
appearance ; while the sharp arched double window in 
the front gable adds character to the design. 

The deep veranda in front covers three-quarters of 
its surface in length, and in the symmetry of its roof, 
and airiness of its columns, with their light braces, 




Pluu. 

COT" 






KUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 

give it a style of completeness ; and if creeping vines 
or climbing shrubs be trained upon them, will produce 
an effect altogether rural and beautiful. 

Or, if a rustic style of finish be adopted, to render 
it cheaper in construction, the effect may still be im- 
posing, and in harmony with the purposes to which it 
is designed. In fact, this model will admit of a variety 
of choice in finish, from the plainest to a high degree 
of embellishment, as the ability or fancy of the builder 
may suggest. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

From the veranda in the center of the front, a door 
opens into a hall, 17 x7 feet, with a flight of stairs 
leading, in three different angles, to the chambers 
above. Opposite the front door is the passage into 
the living room, or parlor, !Yxl5 feet, lighted by three 
windows, two of which present an agreeable view of 
an adjacent stream and its opposite shores. At the 
line of partition from the hall, stands a chimney, with 
a fireplace, if desirable, or for a stove, to accommodate 
both this room and the hall with a like convenience ; 
and under the flight of stairs adjoining opens a china 
closet, with spacious shelves, for the safe-keeping of 
household comforts. From this room, a door leads into 
a bedroom, 10x13 feet, lighted by a window opening 
into the veranda, also accommodated by a stove, which 
leads into a chimney at its inner partition. Next to 
this bedroom is the kitchen, 12x13 feet, accommodated 
with a chimney, where may be inserted an open fire- 
place, or a stove, as required. In this is a flight of 



230 KUEAL AJRCHITECTIIRE. 

back chamber and cellar stairs. This room is lighted 
by two windows one in the side, another in the rear. 
A door leads from its rear into a large, roomy pantry, 
8 feet square, situated in the wing, and lighted by a 
window. Next to this is a passage, 3 feet in width, 
leading to the wood-house, (in which the pantry just 
named is included,) 16x12 feet, with nine-feet posts, 
and roof pitched like the house, in the extreme corner 
of which is a water-closet, 5x3 feet. Cornering upon 
the wood-house beyond, is a small building, 15x12 
feet, with ten-feet posts, and a roof in same style as 
the others with convenience for a cow and a pig, 
with each a separate entrance. A flight of stairs leads 
to the hay-loft above the stables, in the gable of which 
is the hay-door ; and under the stairs is the granary ; 
and to these may be added, inside, a small accommo- 
dation for a choice stock of poultry. 

The chamber plan is the same as the lower floor, 
mainly, giving three good sleeping-rooms ; that over 
the kitchen, being a T)ack chamber, need not have a 
separate passage into the upper hall, but may have a 
door passage into the principal chamber. The door 
to the front bedroom leads direct from the upper 
hall. Thus, accommodation is given to quite a nu- 
merous family. Closets may be placed in each of 
these chambers, if wanted ; and the entire establish 
ment made a most snug and compact, as well as 
commodious arrangement. 



RURAL AEOHITECTUEE. 231 



COTTAGE OUTSIDE DECOKATIOtf. 



Nothing so perfectly sets off a cottage, in external 
appearance, as the presence of plants and shrubbery 
Ifcound it. A large tree or two, by giving an air of 
protection, is always in place ; and creeping vines, and 
climbing shrubs about the windows and porch, are in 
true character ; while a few low-headed trees, of vari- 
ous kinds, together with some simple and hardy annual 
and other flowers to which should always be added, 
near by, a small, well-tended kitchen garden fill up 
the picture. 

In the choice of what varieties should compose these 
ornaments, one can hardly be at a loss. Flanking the 
cottage, and near the 3$itchen garden, should be the 
fruit trees. The elm, maples, oak, and hickory, in 
all their varieties, black-walnut, butternut the last 
all the better for its rich kernel are every one appro- 
priate for shade, as large trees. The hop, morning- 
glory, running beans all useful and ornamental as 
summer climbers ; the clematis, bitter-sweet, ivy, any 
of the climbing roses ; the lilac, syringa, snow-ball, 
and the standard roses ; while marigolds, asters, pinks, 



282 KTTKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

the phloxes, peonies, and a few other cf the thousand- 
and-one simple and charming annuals, biennials, and 
perennials, with now and then a gorgeous sunflower, 
flaunting in its broad glory, will fill up the catalogue. 
Rare and costly plants are not required, and indeed, 
are hardly in place in the grounds of an ordinary cot- 
tage, unless occupied by the professional gardener. 
They denote expense, which the laboring cottager can- 
not afford ; and besides that, they detract from the 
simplicity of the life and purpose which not only the 
cottage itself, but everything around it, should express. 
There is an affectation of cottage building, with sorn^e- 
people who, with a seeming humilty, really aim ^ 
higher flights of style in living within them, than truth 
of either design or purpose will admit. But as such 
cases are more among villagers, and those temporarily 
retiring from the city for summer residence, the farm 
cottage has little to do with it. Still, such fancies are 
contagious, and we have occasionally seen the ambi- 
tious cottage, with its covert expression of humility, 
insinuating itself on to the farm, and for the farmer's 
own family occupation, too, which at once spoiled, to 
the eye, the substantial reality of the whole establish- 
ment. A farmer should discard all such things as 
ornamental cottages. They do not belong to the farm. 
If he live in a cottage himself, it should be a plain one; 
yet it may be very substantial and well finished 
something showing that he means either to be content 
in it, in -its character of plainness, or that he intends, 
at a future day, to build something better when this 
may serve for the habitation of one of his laborers. 



KURAL ARCHITECTURE. 233 

The cottage should never occupy a principal, or 
prominent site on the farm It should take a subor- 
dinate position of ground. This adds to its expression 
as subordinate in rank, among the lesser farm build- 
ings. A cottage cannot, and should not aspire to be 
chief in either position or character. Such should be 
the farm house proper; although unpretending, still, 
in style, above the cottage ; and if the latter, in addi- 
tion, be required on the farm, it should so appear, both 
in construction and finish ; just what it is intended 
for a tenement for economical purposes. 

There is another kind of cottage, the dwellers in 

O ' 

which, these pages will probably never reach, that 
expresses, in its wild structure, and rude locality, the 
idea of Moore's pretty song 

" I knew by the smoke that so gracefully curled 
Above the green elms, that a cottage was near." 

Yet, in some parts of our country, landlords may build 
Biich, for the accommodation of tenants, which they 
may make useful on the outskirts of their estates, and 
add indirectly to their own convenience and interest in 
so doing. This may be indulged in, poetically too for 
almost any thinking man has a spice of poetry in his 
composition vagabondism, a strict, economizing utili- 
tarian would call it. The name matters not. One 
may as well indulge his taste in this cheap sort of 
charitable expenditure, as another may indulge, in his 
dogs, and guns, his horses and equipages and the 
first is far the cheapest. They, at the west and south, 
understand this, whose recreations are occasionally 



234: BUBAL AKCHITECTT7BE. 

with their hounds, in chase of the deer, and the fox, 
and in their pursuit spend weeks of the fall and winter 
months, in which they are accompanied, and assisted, 
as boon companions for the time, by the rude tenants 
of the cottages we have described : 

" A cheerful, simple, honest people." 

Another class of cottage may come within the farm 
enclosures, half poetical, and half economical, such as 
Milton describes : 

" Hard by a cottage chimney smokes, 
From betwixt two aged oaks ; " 

and occupied by a family pensioner and his infirm old 
wife we don't think all "poor old folks" ought to 
go to the alms-house, because they cannot work every 
day of the year of which all long-settled families of 
good estate have, now and then, one near to, or upon 
their premises. Thousands of kind and liberal hearts 
among our farming and planting brethren, whose im- 
Dulses are 

"Open as the day to melting charity," 

are familiar with the wants of those who are thus made 
their dependents; and in their accommodation, an eye 
may be kept to the producing of an agreeable effect in 
locating their habitations, and to rudely embellish, 
rather than to mar the domain on which they may be 
lodged. 

In short, cottage architecture, in its proper character, 
may be made as effective, in all the ornament which it 
should give to the farm, as that of any other structure ; 



ETJKAL ARCHITECTURE. 235 

and if those who have occasion for the cottage will 
only be content to build and maintain it as it should 
be, and leave off that perpetual aspiration after some- 
thing unnatural, and foreign to its purpose, which so 
many cottage builders of the day attempt, and let it 
stand in its own humble, secluded character, they will 
save themselves a world of trouble, and pass for 
what they now do not men possessing a taste for 
truth and propriety in their endeavors. 



HOUSE AND COTTAGE FUKjSTITURE. 

This is a subject so thoroughly discussed in the 
books, of late, that anything which may here be said, 
would avail but little, inasmuch as our opinions might 
be looked upon as "old-fashioned," " out of date," and 
" of no account whatever," for wonderfully modern 
notions in room-furnishing have crept into the farm 
house, as well as into town houses. Indeed, we confess 
to altogether ancient opinions in regard to household 
furniture, and contend, that, with a few exceptions, 
" modern degeneracy " has reached the utmost stretch 
of absurdity, in house-furnishing, to which the ingenu- 
ity of man can arrive. Fashions in furniture change 
about as often as the cut of a lady's dress, or the shape 

of her bonnet, and pretty much from the same source, 
10 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

too the fancy shops of Pare", once, in good old Eng- 
lish, Paris, the capital city of France. A farmer, rich 
or poor, may spend half his annual income, every year 
of his life, in taking down old, and putting up new 
furniture, and be kept uncomfortable all the time; 
when, if he will, after a quiet, good-tempered talk 
with his better-half, agree with her upon the list of 
necessary articles to make them really comfortable; 
and then a catalogue of what shall comprise the luxu- 
rious part of their furnishings, which, when provided, 
they will fixedly make up their mind to keep, and be 
content with, they will remain entirely free from one 
great source of " the ills which flesh is heir to." 

It is pleasant to see a young couple setting out in 
their housekeeping life, well provided with convenient 
and properly-selected furniture, appropriate to all the 
uses of the family ; and then to keep, and use it, and 
enjoy it, like contented, sensible people ; adding to it, 
now and then, as its wear, or the increasing wants of 
their family may require. Old, familiar things, to 
which we have long been accustomed, and habituated, 
make up a round share of our actual enjoyment. A 
family addicted to constant change in their household 
furniture, attached to nothing, content with nothing, 
and looking with anxiety to the next change of fashion 
which shall introduce something new into the house, 
can take no sort of comfort, let their circumstances be 
ever so affluent. It is a kind of dissipation in which 
some otherwise worthy people are prone to indulge, 
but altogether pernicious in the indulgence. It de- 
tracts, also, from the apparent respectability of a family 



KURAI ARCHITECTURE. 237 

to find nothing old about them as if they themselves 
were of yesterday, and newly dusted out of a modern 
shop-keeper's stock in trade. The furniture of a house 
ought to look as though the family within it once had a 
grandfather and as if old things had some veneration 
from those who had long enjoyed their service. 

We are not about to dictate, of what fashion house- 
hold furniture should be, when selected, any further 
than that of a plain, substantial, and commodious 
fashion, and that it should comport, so far as those 
requirements in it will admit, with the approved modes 
of the day. But we are free to say, that in these times 
the extreme of absurdity, and unfitness for use, is more 
the fashion than anything else. What so useless as 
the modern French chairs, standing on legs like pipe- 
stems, garote-ing your back like a rheumatism, and 
frail as the legs of a spider beneath you, as you sit in 
it; and a tribe of equally worthless incumbrances, 
Avhich absorb your money in their cost, and detract 
from your comfort, instead of adding to it, when you 
have got them ; or a bedstead so high that you must 
have a ladder to climb into it, or so low as to scarcely 
keep you above the level of the floor, when lying on 
it. No; give us the substantial, the easy, the free, 
and enjoyable articles, and the rest may go to tickle 
the fancy of those, who have a taste for them. Nor do 
these flashy furnishings add to one's rank in society, 
or to the good opinion of those whose consideration is 
most valuable. Look into the houses of those people 
who are the really substantial, and worthy of the land. 
There will be found little of such frippery with them 



KUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

Old furniture, well-preserved, useful in 6 very tiling, 
mark the well-ordered arrangement of their rooms, and 
give an air of quietude, of comfort, and of hospitality 
to their apartments. Children cling to such objects in 
after life, as heir-looms of affection and parental regard. 
Although we decline to give specific directions about 
what varieties of furniture should constitute the fur- 
nishings of a house, or to illustrate its style or fashion 
by drawings, and content ourself with the single re- 
mark, that it should, in all cases, be strong, plain, and 
durable no sham, nor ostentation about it and 
such as is made for use : mere trinkets stuck about 
the room, on center tables, in corners, or on the man- 
tel-piece, are the foolishest things imaginable. They 
are costly ; they require a world of care, to keep them 
in condition ; and then, with all this care, they are 
good for nothing, in any sensible use. We have fre- 
quently been into a country house, where we antici- 
pated better things, and, on being introduced into the 
"parlor," actually found everything in the furniture 
line so dainty and "prinked up," that we were afraid 
to sit down on the frail tilings stuck around by way of 
seats, for fear of breaking them ; and everything about 
it looked so gingerly and inhospitable, that we felt an 
absolute relief when we could fairly get out of it, and 
take a place by the wide old fireplace, in the common 
living room, comfortably ensconced in a good old easy, 
high-backed, split-bottomed chair there was positive 
comfort in that, when in the " parlor" there was noth- 
ing but restraint and discomfort. No ; leave all this 
vanity to town-folk, who have nothing better or 



KURAL AKOHITEOTUBE. 

who, at least, think they have to amuse themselves 
with; it has no fitness for a country dwelling, what- 
ever. All this kind of frippery smacks of the board- 
ing school, the pirouette, and the dancing master, and 
is out of character for the farm, or the sensible retire- 
ment of the country. 

In connection with the subject of furniture, a remark 
may be made on the room arrangement of the house, 
which might, perhaps, have been more fittingly made 
when discussing that subject, in the designs of our 
houses. Some people have a marvellous propensity 
for introducing into their houses a suite of rooms, con- 
nected by wide folding-doors, which must always be 
opened into each other, furnished just alike, and de- 
voted to extraordinary occasions ; thus absolutely sink- 
ing the best rooms in the house, for display half a 
dozen times in the year, and at the sacrifice of the 
every-day comfort of the family. This is nothing but 
a bastard taste, of the most worthless kind, introduced 
from the city the propriety of which, for city life, 
need not here be discussed. The presence of such 
arrangement, in a country house, is fatal to everything 
like domestic enjoyment, and always followed by great 
expense and inconvenience. No room, in any house, 
should be too good for occupation by the family them- 
selves not every-day, and common-place but occu- 
pation at any and all times, when convenience or plea- 
sure demand it. If a large room be required, let the 
single room itself be large ; not sacrifice an extra room 
to the occasional extension of the choicer one, as in 
the use of folding-doors must be done. This " parlor " 



240 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

may be better furnished and so it should be than 
any other room in the house. Its carpet should be not 
too good to tread, or stand upon, or for the children to 
roll and tumble upon, provided their shoes and clothes 
be clean. Let the happy little fellows roll and tumble 
on it, to their heart's content, when their mother or 
elder sisters are with them for it may be, perhaps, 
the most joyous, and most innocent pleasure of their 
lives, poor things ! The hearth-rug should be in keep- 
ing with the carpet, also, and no floor-cloth should be 
necessary to cover it, for fear of soiling; but every- 
thing free and easy, with a comfortable, inviting, 
hospitable look about it. 

Go into the houses of our great men such as live 
in the country whom God made great, not money 
and see how they live. We speak not of statesmen 
and politicians alone, but great merchants, great schol- 
ars, great divines, great mechanics, and all men who, 
in mind and attainments, are head and shoulder above 
their class in any of the walks of life, and you find no 
starch, or flummery about them. We once went out 
to the country house he lived there all the time, for 
that matter of a distinguished banker of one of our 
great cities, to dine, and spend the day with him. He 
had a small farm attached to his dwelling, where he 
kept his horses and cows, uis pigs, and his poultry. 
He had a large, plain two-story cottage house, with 
a piazza running on three sides of it, from which a 
beautiful view of the neighboring city, and water, 
and land, was seen in nearly all directions. He was 
an educated man. His father had been a statesman of 



EUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 241 

distinguished ability and station at home, and a diplo- 
matist abroad, and himself educated in the highest cir- 
cles of business, and of society. His wife, too, was 
the daughter of a distinguished city merchant, quite 
his equal in all the accomplishments of life. His own 
wealth was competent ; he was the manager of mil- 
lions of the wealth of others ; and his station in society 
was of the highest. Yet, with all this claim to pre- 
tension, his house did not cost him eight thousand dol- 
lars and he built it by "days-work," too, so as to 
have it faithfully done ; and the furniture in it, aside 
from library, paintings, and statuary, never cost him 
three thousand. Every room in it was a plain one, 
not more highly finished than many a farmer's house 
can afford. The furniture of every kind was plain, 
saving, perhaps, the old family plate, and such as he 
had added to it, which was all substantial, and made for 
use. The younger children and of these, younger 
and older, he had several we found happy, healthy, 
cheerful, and frolicking on the carpets ; and their wor- 
thy mother, in the plainest, yet altogether appropriate 
garb, was sitting among them, at her family sewing, 
and kindly welcomed us as we took our seats in front 
of the open, glowing fireplace. " Why, sir," we ex- 
claimed, rubbing our hands in the comfortable glow of 
warmth which the fire had given for it was a cold 
December day " you are quite plain, as well as won- 
derfully comfortable, in your country house 'quite 
different from your former city residence ! " " To .be 
sure we are," was the reply ; " we stood it as long as 
we could, amid the starch and the gimcracks of 



242 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

street, where we rarely had a day to ourselves, and 
the children could never go into the streets but they 
must be tagged and tasselled, in their dress, into all 
sorts of discomfort, merely for the sake of appearance. 
So, after standing it as long as we could, my wife and 
I determined we would try the country, for a while, 
and see what we could make of it. We kept our town- 
house, into which we returned for a winter or two ; but 
gave it up for a permanent residence here, with which 
we are perfectly content. "We see here all the friends 
we want to see ; we all enjoy ourselves, and the chil- 
dren are healthy and happy." And this is but a speci- 
men of thousands of families in the enjoyment of 
country life, including the families of men in the 
highest station, and possessed of sufficient wealth. 

Why, then, should the farmer ape the fashion, and 
the frivolity of the butterflies of town life, or permit 
his family to do it? It is the sheerest possible folly in 
him to do so. Yet, it is a folly into which many are 
imperceptibly gliding, and which, if not reformed, will 
ultimately lead to great discomfort to themselves, and 
ruin to their families. Let thoughtless people do as 
they choose. Pay no attention to their extravagance ; 
but watch them for a dozen years, and see how they 
come out in their fashionable career ; and observe the 
fate of their families, as they get " established " in the 
like kind of life. He who keeps aloof from such temp- 
tation, will then have no cause to regret that he has 
maintained his own steady course of living, and taught 
his sons and daughters that a due attention to their 
own comfort, with economical habits in everything 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 243 

relating to housekeeping, will be to their lasting benefit 
in future. 

But, we have said enough to convey the ideas in 
house-furnishing we would wish to impart; and the 
reader will do as he, or she, no doubt, would have 
done, had we not written a word about it go and 
select such as may strike their own fancy. 

We received, a day or two since, a letter from a 
person at the west, entirely unknown to us, whose 
ideas so entirely correspond with our own, that we 
give it a place, as showing that a proper taste does 
prevail among many people in this country, in regard 
to buildings, and house-furnishings ; and which we 
trust he will pardon us for publishing, as according 
entirely with our own views, in conclusion : 



-, ILL, Dec. 18, 1851. 



DEAR SIB, I received, a few days since, a copy of 
the first number of a periodical called the " Plough," 
into which is copied the elevation of a design for a 
farm house, purporting to be from a forthcoming work 
of yours, entitled " Rural Architecture." Although a 
perfect stranger to you, you will perhaps allow me to 
make one or two suggestions. 

I have seen no work yet, which seems fully to meet 
the wants of our country people in the matter of fur- 
niture. After having built their houses, they need 
showing how to furnish them in the cheapest, most 
neat, comfortable, convenient, and substantial manner. 
The furniture should be designed for use, not merely 

for show. I would have it plain, but not coarse just 
10* 



244 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

enough for the utmost convenience, but nothir g super- 
fluous. The articles of furniture figured, and partially 
described in the late works on those subjects, are 
mostly of too elaborate and expensive a cast to be gen- 
erally introduced into our country houses. There is 
too much ndbobery about them to meet the wants, or 
suit the taste of the plain American farmer. 

As to out-houses the barn, stable, carriage and 
wagon-house, tool-house, piggery, poultry-house, coii- 
crib, and granary, (to say nothing of the " rabbit-wai- 
ren" and "dovecote,") are necessary appendages of 
the farm house. !N"ow, as cheapness is one great de- 
sideratum with nearly all our new beginners in this 
western region, it seems to me, that such plans as will 
conveniently include the greatest number of these 
under the same roof, will be best suited to their neces- 
sities. I do not mean to be understood that, for the 
sake of the first cost, we should pay no regard to the 
appearance, :>r that we should slight our work, or suffer 
it to be constructed of flimsy or perishable materials : 
we should not only have an eye to taste and durability, 
but put in practice the most strict economy. 

I hope, in the above matters, you may be able to 
furnish something better suited to the necessities and 
means of our plain farmers, than has been done by 
any of your predecessors. 

I remain, &c., most respectfully yours, 



BTJRAL ARCHITECTUKE. 245 

Having completed the series of Designs for dwelling 
houses, which we had proposed for this work, and fol- 
lowed them out with such remarks as were thought 
fitting to attend them, we now pass on to the second 
part of our subject : the out-buildings of the farm, in 
which are to be accommodated the domestic animals 
which make up a large item of its economy and man- 
agement; together with other buildings which are 
necessary to complete its requirements. We trust that 
they will be found to be such as the occasion, and the 
wants of the farmer may demand; and in economy, 
accommodation, and extent, be serviceable to those for 
whose benefit they are designed. 



246 BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 



AN APIAEY, OE BEE-HOUSE. 

Every farmer should keep bees provided he have 
pasturage for them, on his own land, or if a proper 
range for their food and stores lie in his immediate 
vicinity. Bees are, beyond any other domestic stock, 
economical in their keeping, to their owners. Still 
they require care, and that of no inconsiderable kind, 
and skill, in their management, not understood by 
every one who attempts to rear them. They ask no 
food, they require no assistance, in gathering their 
daily stores, beyond that of proper housing in the 
cheapest description of tenement, and with that they 
are entirely content. Yet, without these, they are a 
contingent, and sometimes a troublesome appendage 
to the domestic stock of the farm. 

"We call them domestic. In one sense they are so ; 
in another, they are as wild and untamed as when buz- 
zing and collecting their sweets in the vineyard of 
Timnath, where the mighty Sampson took their honey 
from the carcass of the dead lion ; or, as when John 
the Baptist, clothed with camel's hair, ate "locusts 
and wild honey" in the arid wastes of Palestine. 
Although kept in partial bondage for six thousand 
years, the ruling propensity of the bee is to seek a 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 247 

home and shelter in the forest, when it emerges in a 
swarm from the parent hive ; and no amount of domes- 
tic accommodation, or kindness of treatment, will in- 
duce it willingly to migrate from its nursery habitation 
to another by its side, although provided with the 
choicest comforts to invite its entrance. It will soon 
fly to the woods, enter a hollow and dilapidated tree, 
and carve out for itself its future fortunes, amid a 
world of labor and apparent discomfort. The bee, too, 
barring its industry, patience, and sweetened labors, is 
an arrant thief robbing its nearest neighbors, with 
impunity, when the strongest, and mercilessly slaugh- 
tering its weaker brethren, when standing in the way 
of its rapacity. It has been extolled for its ingenuity, 
its patience, its industry, its perseverance, and its vir- 
tue. Patience, industry, and perseverance it has, 
beyond a~ doubt, and in a wonderful degree ; but in- 
genuity, and virtue, it has none, more than the spider, 
who spins his worthless web, or the wasp, who stings 
you when disturbing his labors. Instinct, the bee has, 
like all animals ; but of kind feeling, and gratitude, it 
has nothing; and with all our vivid nursery remem- 
brance of good Doctor Watts' charming little hymn 

"How doth the little busy bee," (fee. <fec., 

we have long ago set it down as incorrigible to kind 
treatment, or charitable sympathy, and looked upon it 
simply as a thing to be treated kindly for the sake of 
its labors, and as composing one of that delightful 
family of domestic objects which make our homes 
attractive, pleasant, and profitable. 



248 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The active labors of the bee, in a bright May or 
June morning, as they fly, in their busy order, back 
and forth from their hives, or the soothing hum of their 
playful hours, in a summer's afternoon, are among the 
most delightful associations of rural life ; and as a 
luxury to the sight, and the ear, they should be asso- 
ciated with every farmer's home, and with every 
laborer's cottage, when practicable. And as their due 
accommodation is to be the object of our present 
writing, a plan is presented for that object. 

In many of the modern structures held out for imi- 
tation, the bee-house, or apiary, is an expensive, pre- 
tentious affair, got up in an ambitious way, with efforts 
at style, in the semblance of a temple, a pagoda, or 
other absurdity, the very appearance of which frightens 
the simple bee from its propriety, and in which we 
never yet knew a colony of them to become, and remain 
successful. The insect is, as we have observed, wild 
and untamable a savage in its habits, and rude in 
its temper. It rejects all cultivated appearances, and 
seeks only its own temporary convenience, together 
with comfortable room for its stores, and the increase 
of its kind ; and therefore, the more rustic and simple 
its habitation, the better is it pleased with its position. 

The bee-house should front upon a sheltered and 
sunny aspect. It should be near the ground, in a clean 
and quiet spot, free from the intrusion of other crea- 
tures, either human or profane, and undisturbed by 
noisome smells, and uncouth sounds for it loathes all 
these instinctively, and loves nothing so much as the 
wild beauty of nature itself. The plan here presented 



BTTRAT. A-ROHTTKCrJKE. 



249 






U U U LJ 



U U Li 




5 < 7 5 3 IT 



GROUND PLAN. 



250 BTTKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

is of the plainest and least expensive kind. Nine 
posts, or crutches, are set into the ground sufficiently 
deep to hold them firm, and to secure them from heav- 
ing out by the frost. The distance of these posts apart 
may be according to the size of the building, and to 
give it strength enough to resist the action of the wind. 
The front posts should be 9 feet high, above the ground ; 
the rear posts should be V feet that a man, with his 
hat on, may stand upright under them and 6 feet 
from the front line. The two end posts directly in the 
rear of the front corner posts, should be 3 feet back 
from them, and on a line to accommodate the pitch of 
the roof from the front to the rear. A light plate is to 
be fitted on the top line of the front posts ; a plate at 
each end should run back to the posts in rear, and 
then another cross-plate, or girt, from each one of these 
middle posts, to the post in rear of all, to meet the 
plate which surmounts this rear line of posts ; and a 
parallel plate, or rafter, should be laid from the two 
intermediate posts at the ends, to connect them, and 
for a central support to the roof. Intermediate central 
posts should also be placed opposite those in front, to 
support the central plate, and not exceeding 12 feet 
apart. A shed roof, of boards, or shingles, tightly 
laid, should cover the whole, sufficiently projecting 
over the front, rear, and sides, to give the house abun- 
dant shelter, and make it architecturally agreeable to 
the eye say 12 to 18 inches, according to its extent. 
A corner board should drop two feet below the plate, 
with such finish, by way of ornament, as may be desir- 
able. The ends should be tightly boarded up against 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 251 

the weather, from bottom to top. The rear should also 
be tightly boarded, from the bottom up to a level with 
the stand inside, for the hives, and from 15 to 18 inches 
above that to the roof. Fitted into the space thus left 
in the rear, should be a light, though substantial, swing 
door, hung from the upper boarding, made in sections, 
extending from one post to the other, as the size of 
the house may determine, and secured with hooks, or 
buttons, as may be convenient. The outside of the 
structure is thus completed. 

The inside arrangement for the hives, may be made 
in two different ways, as the choice of the apiarian 
may govern in the mode in which his hives are secured. 
The most usual is the stand method, which may be 
made thus : At each angle, equidistant, say 18 to 24 
inches, inside, from the rear side and ends of the build- 
ing as shown in the ground plan and opposite to 
each rear and end post, suspend perpendicularly a line 
of stout pieces of two-inch plank, 4 inches wide, well 
spiked on to the rafters above, reaching down within 
two feet of the ground which is to hold up the bottom 
of the stand on which the hives are to rest. From 
each bottom end of these suspended strips, secure 
another piece of like thickness and width, horizontally 
back to the post in rear of it, at the side and ends. 
Then, lengthwise the building, and turning the angles 
at the ends, and resting on these horizontal pieces just 
described, lay other strips, 3x2 inches, set edgewise 
one in front, and another in rear, inside each post and 
suspended strip, and close to it, and secured by heavy 
nails, so that there shall be a double line of these 



252 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

strips on a level, extending entirely around the inte- 
rior, from the front at each end. This forms the hang- 
ing frame-work for the planks or boards on which the 
hives are to rest. 

Now for the hives. First, let as many pieces of 
sound one and a half, or two-inch plank as you have 
hives to set upon them, be cut long enough to reach 
from the boarding on the rear and ends of the build- 
ing, to one inch beyond, and projecting over the front 
of the outer strip last described. Let these pieces of 
plank be well and smoothly planed, and laid length- 
wise across the aforesaid strips, not less than four 
inches apart from each other if a less number of 
hives be in the building than it will accommodate at 
four inches apart, no matter how far apart they may 
be these pieces of plank are the ferms for the hives, 
on which they are to sit. And, as we have for many 
years adopted the plan now described, with entire 
success, a brief description is given of our mode of 
hive, and' the process for obtaining the surplus honey. 
"We say surplus, for destroying the bees to obtain their 
honey, is a mode not at all according to our notions of 
economy, or mercy ; and we prefer to take that honey 
only which the swarm may make, after supplying their 
own wants, and the stores for their increasing family. 
This process is given in the report of a committee of 
gentlemen appointed by the New York State Agricul- 
tural Society, on a hive which we exhibited on that 
occasion, with the following note attached, at their 
ehow at Buffalo, in 1848 : 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 253 

" I have seen, examined, and used several different 
plans of patent hive, of which there are probably thirty 
invented, and used, more or less. I have found all 
which I have ever seen, unsatisfactory, not carrying 
out in full, the benefits claimed for them. 

"The bee works, and lives, I believe, solely by in- 
stinct. I do not consider it an inventive, or very 
ingenious insect. To succeed well, its accommodations 
should be of the simplest and securest form. Therefore, 
instead of adopting the complicated plans of many of 
the patent hives, I have made, and used a simple box, 
like that now before you, containing a cube of one foot 
square inside made of one and a quarter inch sound 
pine plank, well jointed and planed on all sides, and 
put together perfectly tight at the joints, with white 
lead ground in oil, and the inside of the hive at the 
bottom champered off to three-eighths of an inch thick, 
with a door for the bees in front, of four inches long 
by three-eighths of an inch high. I do this, that there 
may be a thin surface to come in contact with the shelf 
on which they rest, thus preventing a harbor for the 
bee-moth. (I have never used a patent hive which 
would exclude the bee-moth, nor any one which would 
so well do it as this, having never been troubled with 
that scourge since I used this tight hive.) On the top 
of the hive, an inch or two from the front, is made a 
passage for the bees, of an inch wide, and six to eight 
inches long, to admit the bees into an upper hive for 
surplus honey, (which passage is covered, when no 
vessel for that purpose is on the top.) For obtaining 
the honey, I use a common ten or twelve-quart water 



254 BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 

pail, inverted, with the bail turned over, in which the 
bees deposit their surplus, like the sample before you. 
The pail will hold about twenty pounds of honey. 
This is simple, cheap, and expeditious; the pail cost- 
ing not exceeding twenty-five cents, is taken off in a 
moment, the bail replaced, and the honey ready for 
transportation, or market, and always in place. If 
there is time for more honey to be made, (my bees 
made two pails-full in succession this year,) another 
pail can be put on at once. 

" Such, gentlemen, in short, is my method. I have 
kept bees about twenty years. I succeed better on this 
plan than with any other." 

In addition to this, our hives are painted white, or 
other light color, on the outside, to protect them from 
warping, and as a further security against the bee- 
moth, or miller, which infests and destroys so many 
carelessly-made hives, as to discourage the efforts of 
equally careless people in keeping them. Inside the 
hive, on each end, we fasten, by shingle nails, about 
half-way between the bottom and top, a small piece rf 
half-inch board, about the size of a common wind w 
button, and with a like notch in it, set upward, but 
stationary, on whichj when the hive is to receive the 
swarm, a stick is laid across, to support the comb as 

is built, from falling in hot weather. At such time, 
also, when new, and used for the first time, the under- 
side of the top is scratched with the tines of a table 
fork, or a nail, so as to make a rough surface, to which 
the new comb can be fastened. In addition to the pails 



KTJRAL ARCHITECTURE. 255 

on the top of the hives, to receive the surplus honey, 
we sometimes use a flat box, the size of the hive in 
diameter, and six or seven inches high inside, which 
will hold twenty-five to thirty pounds of honey. The 
pails we adopted as an article of greater convenience 
for transporting the honey. 

The other plan of arranging the hives alluded to, is 
suspending them between the strips before described, 
by means of cleats secured on to the front and rear 
sides of the hive, say two-thirds the way up from the 
bottom. In such case, the strips running lengthwise 
the house must be brought near enough together to 
receive the hives as hung by the cleats, and the bottom- 
boards, or forms, must be much smaller than those 
already described, and hung with wire hooks and sta- 
ples to the sides, with a button on the rear, to close 
up, or let them down a sufficient distance to admit 
the air to pass freely across them, and up into the 
hive Weeks' plan, in fact, for which he has a patent, 
together with some other fancied improvements, such 
as chambers to receive the boxes for the deposit of 
surplus honey. This, by the way, is the best "patent" 
we have seen ; and Mr. Weeks having written an in- 
genious and excellent treatise on the treatment of the 
bee, we freely recommend his book to the attention of 
every apiarian who wishes to succeed in their manage- 
ment. As a rule, we have no confidence in patent 
liives. We have seen scores of them, of different 
kinds, have tried several of great pretension to sundry 
virtues such as excluding moths, and other marvel- 
ous benefits and, after becoming the victim of bee 



256 RURAI, AUCHITECTUKE. 

empirics to the tune of many a dollar, have thrown 
aside the gimcracks, and taken again to a common- 
sense method of keeping our bees, as here described 
The bees themselves, we feel bound to say, seem to 
hold these patent-right habitations in quite as sovereign 
contempt as ourself, reluctantly going into them, and 
getting out of them at the first safe opportunity. But, 
as a treatise on bee-keeping is not a part of this present 
work, we must, for further information, commend the 
inquirer on that subject to some of the valuable trea- 
tises extant, on so prolific a subject, among which we 
name those of Bevan, Weeks, and Miner. 

The bee-house should be thoroughly whitewashed 
inside every spring, and kept clean of cobwebs, 
wasp's nests, and vermin ; and it may be painted out- 
side, a soft and agreeable color, in keeping with the 
other buildings of the farm. Its premises should be 
clean, and sweet. The grass around should be kept 
mowed close. Low trees, or shrubbery, should stand 
within a few yards of it, tliat the new swarms may 
light upon them when coming out, and not, for want 
of such settling places, be liable to loss from flying 
away. It should, also, be within sight and hearing, 
and at no great distance from a continually-frequented 
room in the dwelling perhaps the kitchen, if con- 
venient, that, in their swarming season, they may be 
secured as they leave the parent hive. The apiary is 
a beautiful object, with its busy tenantry ; and to the 
invalid, or one who loves to look upon God's tiny 
creatures, it may while away many an agreeable 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 257 

hour, in watching their labors thus adding pleasure 
to profit. 

The cost of a bee-house, on the plan given, may be 
from ten to fifty dollars, according to the price of 
material, and the amount of labor expended upon it. 
It should not be an expensive structure, in any event, 
as its purpose does not warrant it. If a gimcrack 
affair be wanted, for the purposes of ornament, or ex- 
pense, any sum of money may be squandered upon it 
which the fancy of its builder may choose tr. epaie, 



25S KUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 



AN ICE-HOUSE. 



Among the useful and convenient appendages to the 
farm and country family establishment, is the ice- 
house. Different from the general opinion which pre- 
vailed in our country before ice became so important 
an article of commerce, and of home consumption, the 
building which contains it should stand above-ground, 
instead of below it. And the plainer and more simple 
it can be constructed, the better. 

The position of the ice-house may be that which is 
most convenient to the dwelling, or to the wants of 
those who use it. If it can be placed beneath the 
shade of trees, it will so far be relieved from the influ- 
ence of the sun ; but it should be so constructed that 
sunshine will not affect the ice within it, even if it 
stand unsheltered ; and as it has, by the ice-merchants 
of our eastern cities, who put up large quantities for 
exportation abroad, and others in the interior, who 
furnish ice in quantity 'for home consumption, been 
proved to be altogether the better plan to build the 
ice-house entirely above ground, we shall present no 
other mode of construction than this. It may be 
added, that five years' experience with one of our own 



BUBAL ABOHTTECTUBE. 259 

building, has confirmed our opinion of the superiority 
of this over any other plan which may be adopted. 

The design here presented is of the most economical 
kind, yet sufficiently ornamental to make it an agree- 
able appendage to any family establishment. The size 
may be 12 feet square less than that would be too 
small for keeping ice well and from that up to any 
required extent. The idea here given is simply the 
principle of construction. The posts should be full 
eight feet high above the ground, to where the plate 
of the roof is attached, and built thus : 

Mark out your ground the size you require for the 
house ; then, commencing at one corner, dig, opposite 
each other, a double set of holes, one foot deep, and 
two and a half feet apart, on each side of the intended 
building, say three feet equidistant, so that when the 
posts stand up they will present a double set, one and 
a half feet apart. Then set in your posts, which should 
be of oak, chestnut, or some lasting wood, and pack 
the earth firmly around them. If the posts are sawed, 
they may be 4x6 inches in size, set edgeways toward 
each other. If not sawed, they may be round sticks 
cut from the woods, or split from the body of a tree, 
quartered but sizable, so as to appear decent and 
the insides facing each other as they stand up, lined to 
a surface to receive the planking. Of course, when 
the posts are set in the ground, they are to show a 
square form, or skeleton of what the building is to be 
when completed. When this is done, square off the 
top of each post to a level, all round ; then frame, or 
spike on to each line of posts a plate, say six inches 




f HUt 



f 



CKUKNl) 1'LAS. 



ETJEAL AKCHITECTURE. 261 

wide, and four to six inches deep, and stay the two 
plates together strongly, so as to form a double frame. 
Now, plank, or board up closely the inside of each 
line of posts, that the space between them shall be a 
fair surface. Cut out, or leave out a space for a door 
i\ the center of the side where you want it, two and a 
ialf or three feet wide, and six and a half feet high y 
and board up the inner partition sides of this opening, 
so as to form a door-casing on each side, that the space 
between the two lines of posts may be a continuous box 
all around. Then fill up this. space between the posts 
with moist tan-bark, or saw-dust, well packed from 
the ground up to the plates ; and the body of the house 
is inclosed, sun-proof, and air-proof, to guard the ice. 

Now lay down, inside the building, some sticks 
not much matter what, so that they be level and on 
them lay loose planks or boards, for a floor. Cover 
this floor with a coating of straw, a foot thick, and it 
is ready to receive the ice. 

For the roof, take common 3x4 joists, as rafters; 
or, in place of them, poles from the woods, long enough, 
in a pitch of full 35 from a horizontal line, to carry 
the roof at least four feet over the outside of the plates, 
and secure the rafters well, by pins or spikes, to them. 
Then board over and shingle it, leaving a small aper- 
ture at the top, through which run a small pipe, say 
eight inches in diameter a stove-crock will do for 
a ventilator. Then set in, 4 little posts, say two feet 
high as in the design throw a little four-sided, 
pointed cap on to the top of these posts, and the roof 
is done. If you want to ornament the under side of 



KUEAL AKCHITECTUKE. 

the roof, in a rude way and we would advise it- 
take some pieces of 3x4 scantling, such, as were used 
for the roof, if the posts are of sawed stuif if not, 
rough limbs of trees from the woods, to match the 
rough posts of the same kind, and fasten them to 
the posts and the under side of the roof, by way of 
brackets, as shown in the design. 

When the ice is put into the house, a close floor of 
boards should be laid on joists, which rest on the 
plates, loosely, so that this floor can be removed when 
putting in ice, and that covered five or six inches deep 
with tan, or saw-dust straw will do, if the other can 
not be had and the inside arrangement is complete. 
Two doors should be attached to the opening, where 
the ice is put in and taken out ; one on the inner side 
of the lining, and the other on the outer side, both 
opening out. Tan, saw-dust, or straw should also be 
placed on the top of the ice, when put in, so as to keep 
the air from it as much as possible ; and as the ice is 
removed, it will settle down upon, and still preserve it. 
Care must be taken to have a drain under the floor of 
the house, to pass off the water which melts from the 
ice, as it would, if standing there, injure its keeping. 

It will be seen, that, by an error in the cut of the 
ground plan, the inside line of posts does not show, as 
in the outer line, which they should do ; nor is the out- 
side door inserted, as is shown in the elevation. These 
defects, however, will be rectified by the builder. 

We have given considerable thought to this subject, 
and can devise no shape to the building more appro- 
priate than this, nor one cheaper in construction. It 



BUBAL ABCHTTEOTUBE. 263 

may be built for fifty to a hundred dollars, according 
to the cost of material and labor, and the degree of 
finish given to it. 

It is hardly worth while to expatiate upon the con- 
venience and economy of an ico-house, to an Ameri- 
can. Those who love well-kept meats, fruits, butter, 
milk, and various etceteras for the table, understand 
its utility well ; to say nothing of the cooling draughts, 
in the way of drinks, in hot weather, to which it 
adds when not taken to extremes such positive 
luxury. We commend the ice-house, well-filled, most 
heartily, to every good country housekeeper, as a 
matter of convenience, economy, and luxury, adding 
next to nothing to the living expenses, and, as an 
appendage to the main buildings, an item of little cost, 
and a considerable degree of ornament. 

If an under-ground ice-house be preferred to the 
plan here shown, a side hill, or bank, with a northerly 
exposure, is the best location for it ; and the manner 
of building should be mainly like this, for the body of 
the house. The roof, however, should be only two- 
sided, and the door for putting in and taking out the 
ice may be in the gable, on the ground level. The 
drainage under the floor, and precautions for keeping 
the :?,e, should be quite as thorough as we have de- 
scribed; as, otherwise, the earth surrounding it on 
three sides, at least, of the house, will be a ready con- 
ductor of warmth, and melt the ice with great rapidity. 
If the under-ground plan is adopted, but little more 
than the roof will show, and of course, be of littte 
ornament in the way of appearance. 



264 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



THE ASH-HOUSE AND SMOKE-HOUSE. 



These two objects may, both for convenience and 
economy, be well combined under one roof; and we 
have thus placed them in connection. The building is 
an exceedingly simple structure, made of stone, or 
brick ; the body 10 feet high, and of such size as may 
be desirable, with a simple roof, and a plain, hooded 
chimney. 

In the ground plan will be seen a brick, or stone 
partition which may extend to such height as may be 
necessary to contain the bulk of ashes required for stor- 
age within it on one side of the building, to which 
a door gives access. The opposite side, and overhead, 
is devoted to the smoke-house, in which the various 
girts and hooks may be placed, for sustaining the 
meats to be smoked. The building should be tied 
together by joists at the plates, properly anchored into 
the walls, to prevent their spreading. A stove, or 
pans, or neither, as the method of keeping the smoke 
alive may govern, can be placed inside, to which the 
chimney in the roof may serve as a partial escape, 
or not, as required. The whole process is so simple, 




ASH HOUSE AND SMOKE HOUSE. 
99816 f & t f 



GROUND PLAN. 



266 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and so easily understood, that further explanation is 
unnecessary. 

A great advantage that a house of this construction 
has, is the convenience of storing the smoked meats 
for an indefinite time, even through the whole season, 
keeping them dark, dry, and cool ; and permitting, at 
any time, a smoke to be made, to drive out the flies, 
if they find their way into it. 

The ashes can, of course, be removed at any time, 
by Jie door at which they are thrown in. 



RTJKAL AKCHITEOTUBB. 267 



THE POULTKT-HOUSE. 



As poultry is an indispensable appendage- to the 
farm, in all cases, the poultry-house is equally indis- 
pensable, for their accommodation, and for the most 
profitable management of the fowls themselves, and 
most convenient for the production of their eggs and 
young. Indeed, without well-arranged quarters for 
the fowls of the farm, they are exceedingly trouble- 
some, and of doubtful profit; but with the proper 
buildings devoted to them exclusively, they become 
one of the most interesting and agreeable objects with 
which either the farm or the country house is associated. 

It is hardly worth while to eulogize poultry. Their 
merits and virtues are written in the hearts of all prov- 
ident housekeepers ; and their beauty and goodness are 
familiar to every son and daughter of the rural home- 
stead. We shall, then, proceed at once to discuss 
their proper accommodation, in the cheapest and most 
familiar method with which we are acquainted. 

The hen-house for hens (barn-door fowls, we mean) 
are the first and chief stock, of the kind, to be pro- 
vided for, and with them most of the other varieties 
11* 



268 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

can be associated should be located in a warm, shel- 
tered, and sunny place, with abundant grounds about it, 
where they can graze hens eat grass and scratch, 
and enjoy themselves to their heart's content, in all 
seasons, when the ground is open and they can scratch 
into, or range over its surface. Some people indeed, 
a good many people picket in their gardens, to keep 
hens out; but we prefer an enclosure to keep the hens 
in, at all seasons when they are troublesome, which, 
after all, is only during short seasons of the year, when 
seeds are planted, or sown, and grain and vegetables 
are ripening. Otherwise, they may range at will, on 
the farm, doing good in their destruction of insects, 
and deriving much enjoyment to themselves ; for hens, 
on the whole, are happy things. 

We here present the elevation of a poultry-house in 
perspective, to show the principle which we would 
adopt in its construction, and which may be extended 
to any required length, and to which may be added 
any given area of ground, or yard-room, which the 
circumstances of the proprietor may devote to it. It 
is, as will be seen, of a most rustic appearance, and 
built as cheaply, yet thoroughly, as the subject may 
require. Its length, we will say, is 20 feet, its breadth 
16, and its height 10 feet, made of posts set into the 
ground for we do not like sills, and floors of wood, 
because rats are apt to burrow under them, which are 
their worst enemies and boarded up, either inside or 
outside, as in the case of the ice-house previously de- 
scribed, though not double. Plates are laid on these 
posts, to connect them firmly together; and the rafters 




POULTRY LAWN. 



**&76S43*/C 

Slil I ' ' ' ' -J ' '- -J '- 



GROUND PLAN. 



270 KURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

rest on the plates, as usual. The chamber floor is 9 
feet high, above the ground, and may be used either 
for laying purposes by the fowls, or reserved as a stor- 
age-room for their feed. The roof is broadly drawn 
over the body of the building, to shelter it, and through 
the point of the roof, in the center, is a ventilator, with 
a covered top, and a vane significant of its purpose. 
It is also sufficiently lighted, with glass windows, into 
which our draughtsman has put the diamond-paned 
glass, contrary to our notions ; but, as he had, no doubt, 
an eye to the " picturesque," we let it pass, only re- 
marking, that if we were building the house on our 
own account, there should be no such nonsense about 
it. The front windows are large, to attract the warmth 
of the winter's sun. A section of picket fence is also 
attached, and trees in the rear both of which are 
necessary to a complete establishment; the first, to 
secure the poultry in the contiguous yards, and the 
trees to give them shade, and even roosting-places, if 
they prefer such lodgings in warm weather for which 
we consider them eminently wholesome. 

The wooden floor is dispensed with, as was remarked, 
to keep rid of the vermin. If the ground be gravelly, 
or sandy, it will be sufficiently dry. If a heavy or 
damp soil be used, it should be under-drained, which 
will effectually dry it, and be better for the fowls than 
a floor of either wood, brick, or stone. Doors of suffi- 
cient size can be made on the yard sides of the house, 
near the ground, for the poultry to enter either the liv- 
ing or roosting apartments, at pleasure, and hung with 
butts on the upper side, to be closed when necessary. 



BUBAL AKCHITECTUKE. 871 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door opens into the main living room. At 
each end, and in the rear, are tiers of boxes, one foot 
wide, one and a half feet long, and one and a half feet 
high the lowest tier elevated two feet above the 
ground and built one tier above the other, and 
snugly partitioned between, with a hole at one corner 
of each, ten inches high, and eight inches wide, for 
passing in to them ; and a shelf, or passage-board, nine 
inches wide, in front. These are the nesting boxes, 
and should be kept supplied with short, soft straw, or 
hay orts, for that purpose. Hens love secrecy in their 
domestic economy, and are wonderfully pleased with 
the opportunity to hide away, and conceal themselves 
while laying. Indeed, such concealment, or the sup- 
position of it, we have no doubt promotes fecundity, 
as it is well known that a hen can stop laying, almost 
at pleasure, when disturbed in her regular habits and 
settled plans of life. Burns says 

" The best laid schemes of mice and men 
Gang aft agley;" 

and why not hen's ? "We think so. If turkeys be kept 
in the premises, the females can also be accommodated 
in these boxes, as they are fond of laying in company 
with the hens, and frequently in the same nests, only 
that they require larger entrances into them; or, a 
tier of boxes may be made on the ground, for their 
convenience. 



272 BTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

A door leads from the rear of this room into tlie 
roosting apartment, through which is a passage to the 
back side of the building, and a door opposite, leading 
out into the yard. On each side of this passage are 
roosts, rising, each behind and above the other, 18 
inches apart. The lowest roosts may be three feet 
from the ground, and the highest six feet, that they 
may easily fly from one to the other ; and in this way 
they may all be approached, to catch the fowls, when 
required. For the roosts, slender poles, two to three 
inches in diameter small trees, cut from the woods, 
with the bark on, are the best may be used; and 
they should be secured through augur holes in board 
slats suspended from the floor joists overhead. This 
apartment should be cleaned out as often as once a 
fortnight, both for cleanliness and health 'for fowls 
like to be clean, and to have pure air. A flight of 
stairs may be made in one corner of the front room, to 
go into the chamber, if preferred ; but a swing ladder, 
hung by one end, with hinges, to the joists above, 
is, for such purpose, a more cleanly mode of access ; 
which, when not in use, may be hooked up to the 
under side of the floor above ; and a trap door, shutting 
into the chamber floor, and also hung on hinges, will 
accommodate the entrance. 

For feeding troughs, we have seen many ingenious 
contrivances, and among them, possibly, a Yankee 
patent, or two ; but all these we put aside, as of little 
account. A common segar box, or any other cast-off 
thing, that will hold their food, is just as good as the 
most complicated invention ; and, in common feeding, 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUBE. 273 

there is no better mode than to scatter abroad their 
corn, and let them pick it up at their pleasure when 
spread on a clean surface. We think, also, that, except 
for fattening poultry, stated hours of feeding are best 
for the birds themselves, and that they be fed only 
such quantity as they will pick up clean. Water 
should, if possible, be kept constantly by them ; and 
if a small running stream could pass through the yard, 
all the better. 

If it be desirable to have fresh eggs during winter 
and that is certainly a convenience a box stove may 
be set in the living room, and properly protected by a 
grating around it, for warming the living apartment. 
It may be remarked, however, that this winter-laying 
of hens is usually a forcing business. A hen will lay 
but about a given number of eggs in a year ; say a 
hundred we believe this is about the number which 
the most observant of poultry-keepers allow them 
and what she lays in winter must be substracted from 
the number she would otherwise lay in the spring, sum- 
mer, or autumn. Yet a warm house will, laying, aside, 
keep the fowls with less food, and in greater comfort, 
than if cold, and left to their own natural warmth. 

There is usually little difficulty in keeping hens, tur- 
kies, ducks, and geese together, in the same inclosure, 
during winter and early spring, before the grass grows. 
Bat geese and turkies require greater range during the 
warm season than the others, and should have it, both 
for convenience to themselves and profit to their own- 
ers. For winter quarters, low shelters may be made 
for the water-fowls in the yards, and the turkies will 



274: BUBAL ABCHITEOTUBE. 

frequently prefer to share the shelter of the hens, on 
the roosts in the house. Guinea-hens cruel, vindic- 
tive things, as they are should never be allowed 
within a common poultry yard. Always quarrelsome, 
and never quiet, they should take to the farmyard, 
with the cattle, where they may range at will, and 
take their amusement in fisticuffs with each other, at 
pleasure. Neither should peacocks be allowed to come 
into the poultry inclosures, during the breeding season ; 
they are anything but amiable in their manners to 
other birds. 

With the care and management of the poultry de- 
partment, after thus providing for their accommodation, 
it is not our province to interfere ; that is a subject 
too generally understood, to require further remark. 
ISTor need we discuss the many varieties of poultry 
which, at the present time, so arrest the attention of 
many of our good country people ; and we will leave 
so important a subject to the meditations of the " ISTew 
England Poultry Society," who have taken the galli- 
naceous, and other tribes under their special cognizance, 
and will, doubtless, in due time, illumine tne world 
with various knowledge in this department of rural 
economy, not yet "dreamt of in our philosophy." 
The recently published poultry books, too, with an 
amplitude and particularity in the discussion of the 
different breeds and varieties, which shuts all suspi- 
cions of self-interest into the corner, have given such 
a fund of information on the subject, that any further 
inquiry may, with entire good will, be turned over to 
their pages. 



TJBAL ARCHITECTURE. 275 



THE DOYECOTE. 



This is a department, in itself, not common among 
the farm buildings, in the United States ; and for the 
reason, probably, that the domestic pigeon, or house- 
dove, is usually kept more for amusement than for 
profit there being little actual profit about them 
and is readily accommodated in the spare lofts of 
sheds and out-buildings devoted to other purposes. 
Pigeons, however, add to the variety and interest of 
the poultry department ; and as there are many differ- 
ent breeds of them, they are general favorites with the 
juveniles of the family. 

Our present object is, not to propose any distinct 
building for pigeon accommodation ; bat to give them 
a location in other buildings, where they will be con- 
veniently provided with room, and least annoying by 
their presence for, be it known, they are oft-times a 
most serious annoyance to many crops of the farm, 
when kept in any considerable numbers, as well as in 
the waste and havoc they make in the stores of the 
barns anl granaries. Although graceful and beautiful 
birds, generally clean and tidy in their personal habits 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

out of doors, they are the filthiest housekeepers imag- 
inable, and no building can be especially devoted to 
their use, if not often swept and cleaned, but what will 
soon become an intolerable nuisance within, and not 
much better without, and the ground immediately 
around the premises a dirty place. The common 
pigeon is a pugnacious cavalier, warring apparently 
upon mere punctilio, as we have often seen, in the dis- 
tant strut-and-coo of a stranger bird to his mate, even 
if she be the very incarnation of " rejected addresses." 
On all these accounts, we would locate unless a 
small and select family of fancy birds, perhaps the 
pigeon stock at the principal farm-yard, and in the 
lofts of the cattle sheds, or the chambers of the stable. 
Wherever the pigeon accommodations are designed 
to be, a close partition should separate their quarters 
from the room occupied for other purposes, with doors 
for admission to those who have to do with them, in 
cleaning their premises, or to take the birds, when 
needed. A line of holes, five inches high, and four 
inches wide the top of the hole slightly arched 
should be made, say 18 inches apart, for the distance 
of room they are to occupy in the building. A foot 
above the top of these, another line may be made ; and 
so on, tiering them up to the height intended to devote 
to them. A line of shelves, or lighting-boards, six to 
eight inches wide, should theu be placed one inch 
below the bottom of these holes, and firmly braced 
beneath, and nailed to the weather-boarding of the 
house. Inside, a range of box should be made, of cor- 
ro^ponding length with the line of holes, to embrace 



KTTKAL AKCmTECTITRE. 277 

every entrance from the outside, 18 inches wide, and 
partitioned equidistant between each entrance, so as to 
give a square box of 18 inches to each pair of birds. 
The bottom board of each ascending tier of boxes will, 
of course, be the top of the boxes below, and these 
must be made perfectly tight, to prevent the offal of 
the upper ones from falling through, to the annoyance 
of their neighbors below. The back of these boxes 
should have a line of swing doors, hung with butts, or 
hinges, from the top, and fastened with buttons, or 
hooks, at the bottom, to allow admission, or examina- 
tion, at any time, to those who have the care of them. 
This plan of door is indispensable, to clean them out 
which should be done as often as once a week, or fort- 
night, at farthest and to secure the birds as they 
may be wanted for the table, or other purposes for it 
will be recollected that squabs, just feathered out, are 
considered a delicious dish, at the most sumptuous 
tables. It will be understood, that these boxes above 
described, are within a partitioned room, with a floor, 
in their rear, with sufficient space for the person in 
charge of them to pass along, and to hold the baskets, 
or whatever is to receive the offal of their boxes, as it 
is taken out. This offal is valuable, as a highly stimu- 
lating manure, and is sought for by the morocco tan- 
ners, at a high price frequently at twenty-five cents 
a bushel. 

As pigeons are prolific breeders, laying and hatch- 
ing six or seven times a year, and in warm climates 
c ener, they require a good supply of litter short 
( t, soft straw is the best which should be freely 



278 BUBAL ABCHITECTTTRE. 

supplied at every new incubation, and the old litter 
removed. The boxes, too, should be in a warm place, 
snugly made, and well sheltered from the wind and 
driving storms ; for pigeons, although hardy birds 
when grown, should be well protected while young. 

The common food of the pigeon is grain, of almost 
any kind, and worms, and other insects, which they 
pick up in the field. On the whole, they are a pleas- 
ant bird, when they can be conveniently kept, and are 
worth the trifling cost that their proper housing may 
demand. 

If our opinion were asked, as to the best, and least 
troublesome kind of pigeon to be kept, we should say, 
the finest and most hardy of the common kind, which 
are usually found in the collections throughout the 
the country. But there are many fancy breeds such 
as the fan-tail, the powter, the tumbler, the ruifler, and 
perhaps another variety or two all pretty birds, and 
each distinct in their appearance, and in some of their 
domestic habits. The most beautiful of the pigeon 
kind, however, is the Carrier. They are the very per- 
fection of grace, and symmetry, and beauty. Their 
colors are always brilliant and changing, and in their 
flight they cleave the air with a rapidity which no 
other variety indeed, which scarce any other bird, 
of any kind, can equal. History is full of examples 
of their usefulness, in carrying tidings from one coun- 
try to another, in letters, or tokens, fastened to their 
necks or legs, for which they are trained by those who 
have thus used them ; but which, now, the well known 
telegraph wire has nearly superseded. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 279 

All these fancy breeds require great care in their 
management, to keep them pure in blood, as they will 
all mix, more or less, with the common pigeon, as they 
come in contact with them ; and the selection of what- 
ever kind is wanted to be kept, must be left to those 
who are willing to bestow the pains which their neces- 
sary care may demand. 



A PIGGEEY. 

The hog is an animal for which we have no especial 
liking, be he either a tender suckling, nosing and tug- 
ging at the well-filled udder of his dam, or a well- 
proportioned porker, basking in all the plenitude of 
swinish luxury ; albeit, in the use of his flesh, we affect 
not the Jew, but liking it moderately well, in its vari- 
ous preparations, as a substantial and savory article of 
diet. Still, the hog is an important item of our agri- 
cultural economy, and his production and proper treat- 
ment is a valuable study to all who rear him as a 
creature either of profit or convenience. In the west- 
ern and southern states, a mild climate permits him to 
be easily reared and fed- off for market, with little 
heed to shelter or protection ; while in the north, he 
requires care and covering during winter. Not only 
this ; in all places the hog is an unruly, mischievous 
creature, and has no business really in any other 



280 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

place than where lie can be controlled, and kept at a 
moment's call. 

But, as tastes and customs differ essentially, with 
regard to his training and destiny, to such as agree 
with us in opinion, that his proper place is in the sty, 
particularly when feeding for pork, a plan of piggery 
is given, such as may be economical in construction, 
and convenient in its arrangement, both for the swine 
itself, and him who has charge of him. 

The design here given, is for a building, 36 feet long, 
and 24 feet wide, with twelve-feet posts ; the lower, or 
living room for the swine, 9 feet high, and a storage 
chamber above, for the grain and other food required 
for his keeping. The roof has a pitch of 40 from a 
horizontal line, spreading over the sides and gables at 
least 20 inches, and coarsely bracketed. The entrance 
front projects 6 feet from the main building, by 12 feet 
in length. Over its main door, in the gable, is a door 
with a hoisting beam and tackle above it, to take in 
the grain, and a floor over the whole area receives it. 
A window is in each gable end. A ventilator passes 
up through this chamber and the roof, to let off the 
steam from the cooking vats below, and 4he foul air 
emitted by the swine, by the side of which is the fur- 
nace-chimney, giving it, on the whole, as respectable 
an appearance as a pigsty need pretend to. 




PIGGERY. 



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GROUND PLAN. 



282 BUBAL ABOHITEOTDBB. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

At the left of the entrance is a flight of stairs, (5,) 
leading to the chamber above. On the right is a small 
area, (,) with a window to light it. A door from this 
leads into the main room, (c,) where stands a chimney, 
(d,) with a furnace to receive the fuel for cooking the 
food, for which are two kettles, or boilers, with wooden 
vats, on the top, if the extent of food demands them ; 
these are secured with broad wooden covers, to keep 
in the steam when cooking. An iron valve is placed 
in the back flue of the furnace, which may fall upon 
either side, to shut off the fire from either of the ket- 
tles, around which the fire may revolve ; or, the valve 
may stand in a perpendicular position, at will, if both 
kettles be heated at the same time. But, as the most 
economical mode is to cook one kettle while the other 
is in process of feeding out, and vice versa, scarcely 
more than one at a time will be required in use. Over 
each kettle is a sliding door, with a short spout to slide 
the food into them, when wanted. If necessary, and 
it can be conveniently done, a well may be sunk under 
this room, and a pump inserted at a convenient place ; 
or if equally convenient, a pipe may bring the water 
in from a neighboring stream, or spring. On three 
sides of this room are feeding pens, (<?,) and sleeping 
partitions, (/",) for the swine. These several apart- 
ments are accommodated with doors, which open into 
separate yards on the sides and in rear, or a large ona 
for the entire family, as may be desired. 



BUBAL ABOHITECTUBE 283 



CONSTRUCTION. 



The frame of this building is of strong timber, and 
stout for its size. The sills should be 8 inches square, 
the corner posts of the same size, and the intermediate 
posts 8x6 inches in diameter. In the center of these 
posts, grooves should be made, 2 inches wide, and 
deep, to receive the plank sides, which should be 2 
inches thick, and let in from the level of the chamber 
by a flush cutting for that purpose, out of the grooves 
inside, thus using no nails or spikes, and holding the 
planks tight in their place, that they may not be rooted 
out, or rubbed off by the hogs, and the inner projec- 
tion of the main posts left to serve as rubbing posts for 
them for no creature so loves to rub his sides, when 
fatting, as a hog, and this very natural and praise- 
worthy propensity should be indulged. These planks, 
like the posts, should, particularly the lower ones, be 
of hard wood, that they may not be eaten off. Above 
the chamber floor, thinner planks may be used, but all 
should be well jointed, that they may lie snug, and 
shut out the weather. The center post in the floor plan 
of the engraving is omitted, by mistake, but it should 
stand there, like the others. Inside posts at the cor- 
ners, and in the sides of the partitions, like the outside 
ones, should be also placed and grooved to receive the 
planking, four and a half feet high, and their upper 
ends be secured by tenons into mortices in the beams 
overhead. The troughs should then, if possible, be 

made of cast iron, or, in default of that, the hardest of 
12 



284 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

white oak plank, strongly spiked on to the floor and 
sides; and the apartment may then be called hog- 
proof for a more unquiet, destructive creature, to a 
building in which he is confined, does not live, than 
the hog. The slide, or spout to conduct the swill and 
other feed from the feeding-room into the trough, 
should be inserted through the partition planks, with a 
steep slant the whole length of the trough, that the 
feed may be readily thrown into any or all parts of it. 
This slide should be of two-inch white-oak plank, and 
l">und along the bottom by a strip of hoop-iron, to 
]>. event the pigs from eating it oft' a habit they are 
jrone to; then, firmly spiked down to the partition 
planks, and through the ends, to the adjoining studs, 
and the aftair is complete. With what experience we 
Lave had with the hog, and that by no means an agree- 
able one, we can devise no better method of accom- 
modation than this here described, and it certainly is 
the cheapest. But the timber and lumber used must 
bu sound and strong; and then, properly put together, 
it may defy their most destructive ingenuity. Of the 
separate uses to which the various apartments may be 
pat, nothing need be said, as the circumstances of 
every farmer will best govern them. 

One, to three hundred dollars, according to price of 
material and labor, will build this piggery, besides fit- 
ting it up with furnace and boilers. It may be con- 
tracted, or enlarged in size, as necessity may direct; 
but no one, with six to twenty porkers in his fatting 
pens, a year, will regret the expense of building a con- 
venient appurtenance of this kind to his establishment. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 285 

A word may be pardoned, in relation to the too uni- 
versal practice of permitting swine to prowl along the 
highways, and in the yards and lawns of the farm 
house. There is nothing so slovenly, wasteful, and 
destructive to one's thrift, and so demoralizing, in a 
small way, as is this practice. What so revolting to 
one, of the least tidy nature whatever, as a villainous 
brute, with a litter of filthy pigs at her heels, and the 
slimy ooze of a mud-puddle reeking and dripping from 
their sides ? See the daubs of mud marking every 
fence-post, far and near, along the highway, or where- 
ever they run ! A burrow is rooted up at every shady 
point, a nuisance at every corner you turn, and their 
abominable snouts into everything that is filthy, or 
obscene a living curse to all that is decent about 
them. An Ishmaelite among the farm stock, they are 
shunned and hated by every living thing, when at 
large. But, put the creature in his pen, with a ring 
in his nose, if permitted to go into the adjoining yard, 
and comfortably fed, your pig, if of a civilized breed, 
is a quiet, inoffensive indeed, gentlemanly sort of 
animal ; and as such, he is entitled to our toleration 
regard, we cannot say ; for in all the pages of our read- 
ing, we learn, by no creditable history, of any virtuoua 
sympathies in a hog. 



286 BUBAL AECHITECTT7BE. 



FAKM BARNS. 



The farm barn, next to the farm house, is the most 
important structure of the farm itself, in the Northern 
and Middle States ; and even at the south and south- 
west, where less used, they are of more importance 
in the economy of farm management than is generally 
supposed. Indeed, to our own eyes, a farm, or a 
plantation appears incomplete, without a good barn 
accommodation, as much as without good household 
appointments and without them, no agricultural es- 
tablishment can be complete in all its proper economy. 

The most thorough barn structures, perhaps, to be 
seen in the United States, are those of the state of 
Pennsylvania, built by the German farmers of the 
lower and central counties. They are large, and ex- 
pensive in their construction ; and, in a strictly econ- 
omical view, perhaps more costly than required. Yet, 
there is a substance and durability in them, that is 
exceedingly satisfactory, and, where the pecuniary 
ability of the farmer will permit, may well be an 
example for imitation. 

In the structure of the barn, and in its interior ac- 
commodation, much will depend upon the branches of 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 287 

agriculture to which the farm is devoted. A farm cul- 
tivated in grain chiefly, requires but little room for 
stabling purposes. Storage for grain in the sheaf, and 
granaries, will require its room ; while a stock farm 
requires a barn with extensive hay storage, and stables 
for its cattle, horses, and sheep, in all climates not 
admitting such stock to live through the winter in the 
field, like the great grazing states west of the Allegha- 
nies. Again, there are wide districts of country where. 
a mixed husbandry of grain and stock is pursued, 
which require barns and out-buildings accommodating 
both ; and to supply the exigencies of each, we shall 
present such plans as may be appropriate, and that 
may, possibly, by a slight variation, be equally adapted 
to either, or all of their requirements. 

It may not be out of place here, to remark, that 
many designers of barns, sheds, and other out-build- 
ings for the accommodation of farm stock, have in- 
dulged in fanciful arrangements for the convenience 
and comfort of animals, which are so complicated that 
when constructed, as they sometimes are, the practical, 
common-sense farmer will not use them ; and, in the 
lea/rning required in their use, are altogether unfit for 
the use and treatment they usually get from those who 
have the daily care of the stock which they are in- 
tended for, and for the rough usage they receive from 
the animals themselves. A very pretty, and a very 
plausible arrangement of stabling, and feeding, and all 
the etceteras of a barn establishment, may be thus 
got up by an ingenious theorist at the fireside, which 
will work to a charm, as he dilates upon its good 



288 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

qualities, untried ; but, when subjected to experiment 
will be utterly worthless for practical use. All this 
we, in our practice, have gone through ; and after 
many years experience, have come to the conclusion 
that the simplest plan of construction, consistent with 
an economical expenditure of the material of food for 
the consumption of stock, is by far the most preferable. 
Another item to be considered in this connection, is 
the comparative value of the stock, the forage fed to 
them, and the labor expended in feeding and taking 
care of them. We will illustrate : Suppose a farm 
to lie in the vicinity of a large town, or city. Its 
value is, perhaps, a hundred dollars an acre. The hay 
cut upon it is worth fifteen dollars a ton, at the barn, 
and straw, and coarse grains in proportion, and hired 
labor ten or twelve dollars a month. Consequently, 
the manager of this farm should use all the economy 
in his power, by the aid of cutting-boxes, and other 
machinery, to make the least amount of forage supply 
the wants of his stock ; and the internal economy of 
his barn arranged accordingly; because labor is his 
cheapest item, and food the dearest. Then, for any 
contrivance to work up his forage the closest by way 
of machinery, or manual labor by which it will serve 
the purposes of keeping his stock, is true economy; 
and the making, and saving of manures is an item of 
the first importance. His buildings, and their arrange- 
ments throughout, should, on these accounts, be con- 
structed in accordance with his practice. If, on the 
other hand, lands are cheap and productive, and labor 
comparatively dear, a different practice will prevail. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

He will feed his hay from the mow, without catting. 
The straw will be either stacked out, and the cattle 
turned to it, to pick what they like of it, and make 
their beds on the remainder ; or, if it is housed, he will 
throw it into racks, and the stock may eat what they 
choose. It is but one-third, or- one-half the labor to 
do this, that the other mode requires, and the saving 
in this makes up, and perhaps more than makes up fur 
the increased quantity of forage consumed. Again, 
climate may equally affect the mode of winter feeding 
the stock. The winters may be mild. The hay may 
be stacked in the fields, when gathered, or put into 
small barns built for hay storage alone ; and the ma- 
nure, scattered over the fields by the cattle, as they arc 
fed from either of them, may be knocked to pieces 
with the dung-beetle, in the spring, or harrowed ami 
bushed over the ground; and with the very small 
quantity of labor required in all this, such practice 
will be more economical than any other which can be 
adopted. It is, therefore, a subject of deliberate study 
with the farmer, in the construction of his out-build- 
ings, what plans he shall adopt in regard to them, and 
their fitting up and arrangement. 

With these considerations before us, we shall submit 
such plans of barn structures as may be adapted for gen- 
eral use, where shelters for the farm crops, and farm 
stock, are required ; and which may, in their interior 
arrangement, be fitted for almost any locality of our 
country, as the judgment and the wants of the builder 
may require. 



290 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



DESIGN I. 

This is a design of barn partially on the Pennsyl- 
vania plan, with under-ground stables, and a stone- 
walled basement on three sides, with a line of posts 
standing open on the yard front, and a wall, pierced 
by doors and windows, retreating 12 feet under the 
building, giving, in front, a shelter for stock. Two 
sheds, by way of wings, are run out to any desired 
length, on each side. The body of this barn, which is 
built of wood, above the basement, is 60x46 feet; the 
posts 18 feet high, above the sills ; the roof is elevated 
at an angle of 40 from a horizontal line, and the 
gables hooded, or truncated, 14 feet wide at the verge, 
so as to cover the large doors at the ends. The main 
roof spreads 3 to 4 feet over the body of the barn, and 
runs from the side eaves in a straight line, different 
from what is shown in the engraving, which appears of 
a gambrel or hipped fashion. The sides are covered 
with boards laid vertically, and battened with narrow 
strips, 3. inches wide. The large doors in the ends are 
14 feet wide, and 14 feet high. A slatted blind win- 
dow is in each gable, for ventilation, and a door, 9x6 
feet, on the yard side. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



293 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

A main floor, A, 12 feet wide, runs the whole length 
through the center of the barn. , 8, are the large 
doors. jT, H, are trap doors, to let hay or straw down 
to the alleys of the stables beneath. B, is the princi- 
pal bay for hay storage, 16 feet wide, and runs up to 
the roof. (7, is the bay, 26x16 feet, for the grain mow, 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 



if required for that purpose. j9, is a granary, 13x16 
feet, and 8 feet high. E, a storage room for fanning 
mill, cutting-box, or other machinery, or implements, 
of same size and height as the granary. F, is a pas- 
sage, 8 feet wide, leading from the main floor to the 
yard door, through which to throw out litter. Over 
this passage, and the granary, and store-room, may be 
stored grain in the sheaf, or hay. The main floor will 
accommodate the thrashing-machine, horse-power, cut- 
ting box, &c., &c., when at work. A line of movable 
sleepers, or poles, may be laid across the floor, 10 feet 
above it, on a line of girts framed into the main posts, 
for that purpose, over which, when the sides of the 



294 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

bam are fall, either hay or grain may be deposited, up 
to the ridge of the roof, and thus afford Isirge storage. 
And if the demands of the crops require it, after the 
sides and over the floor is thus filled, the floor itself 
may, a part of it, be used for packing away either hay 
or grain, by taking off the team after the load is in, 
and passing them out by a retreating process, on the 
side of the cart or wagon ; and the vehicle, when un- 
loaded, backed out by hand. We have occasionally 
adopted this method, when crowded for room for in- 
creased crops, to great advantage. It requires some- 
what more labor, to be sure, but it is much better than 
stacking out ; and a well-filled barn is a good sight to 
look upon. 

Underneath the body of the barn are the stables, 
root cellar, calf houses, or any other accommodation 
which the farm stock may require ; but, for the most 
economical objects, is here cut up into stables. At the 
ends, ?, Z, are passages for the stock to go into their 
stalls ; and also, on the sides, for the men who attend 
to them. The main passage through the center double 
line of stalls is 8 feet wide; and on each side are 
double stalls, 6 J feet wide. From the two end walls, 
the cattle passages are 5 feet wide, the partition be- 
tween the stalls running back in a slant, from 5 feet 
high at the mangers to the floor, at that distance from 
the walls. The mangers, j, j, are 2 feet wide, or may 
be 2i feet, by taking an additional six inches out of 
the rear passage. The passage is, between the man- 
gers, 3 feet wide, to receive the hay from the trap 
<l(fors in the floor above. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



295 



UNDER-GROUND PLAN AND YARD. 



The most economical plan, for room in tying cattle 
in their stalls, is to fasten the rope, or chain, whichever 
is used, (the wooden stanchion, or stancTiel, as it is 
called, to open and shut, enclosing the animal by the 
neck, we do not like,) into a ring, which is secured 
by a strong staple into the post which sustains the par- 
tition, just at the top of the manger, on each side of 
the stall. This prevents the cattle in the same stall 
from interfering with each other, while the partition 
effectually prevents any contact from the animals on 
each side of it, in the separate stalls. The bottom of 
the mangers, for grown cattle, shou'/d be a foot 



296 RTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 

the floor, and the top two and a half feet, which makes 
it deep enough to hold their food ; and the whole, both 
sides and bottom, should be made of two-inch, sound, 
strong plank, that they may not be broken down. The 
back sides of the stalls, next the feeding alleys, should 
be full 3 feet high; and if the cattle are large, and 
disposed to climb into their mangers with their fore- 
feet, as they sometimes do, a pole, of 2 J or 3 inches in 
diameter, should be secured across the front of the 
stall, next the cattle, and over the mangers say 4:J 
feet above the floor, to keep them out of the manger, 
and still give them sufficient room for putting their 
heads between that and the top of the manger, to get 
their food. Cattle thus secured in double stalls, take 
up less room, and lie much warmer, than when in sin- 
gle stalls ; besides, the expense of fitting them up being 
much less an experience of many years has con- 
vinced us on this point. The doors for the passage of 
the cattle in and out of the stables, should be five 
feet wide, that they may have .plenty of room. 

In front of these stables, on the outside, is a line of 
posts, the feet of which rest on large flat stones, and 
support the outer sill of the barn, and form a recess, 
before named, of 12 feet in width, under which may 
be placed a line of racks, or mangers for outside cattle, 
to consume the orte, or leavings of hay rejected by the 
in-door stock ; or, the manure may be housed under it, 
which is removed from the stables by wheel-barrows. 
The low line of sheds w r hich extend from the barn on 
each side of the yard, may be used for the carts, and 
wagons of the place ; or, racks and mangers may be 



RURAL. ARCHITECTURE. 297 

fitted up in them, for outside cattle to consume the 
straw and coarse forage; or, they may be carried 
higher than in our plan, and floored overhead, and 
hay, or other food stored in them for the stock. They 
are so placed merely to give the idea. 

There may be no more fitting occasion than this, 
perhaps, to make a remark or two on the subject of 
managing stock in stables of any kind, when kept in 
any considerable numbers; and a word may not be 
impertinent to the subject in hand, as connected with 
the construction of stables. 

There is no greater benefit to cattle, after coming 
into winter quarters, than a straight-forward regularity 
in everything appertaining to them. Every animal 
should have its own particular stall in the stable, 
where it should always be kept, and in no other. The 
cattle should be fed and watered at certain hours of 
the day, as near as may be. When let out of 'the 
stables for water, unless the weather is very pleasant, 
when they may be permitted to lie out an hour or two, 
they should be immediately put back, and not allowed 
to range about with the outside cattle. They are more 
quiet and contented in their stables than elsewhere, 
and eat less food, than if permitted to run out ; and 
are every way more comfortable, if properly bedded 
and attended to, as every one will find, on trying it. 
The habit of many people, in turning their cattle out 
of the stables in the morning, in all weathers letting 
them range about in a cold yard, hooking and thorning 
each other is of no possible benefit, unless to rid them- 
selves of the trouble of cleaning the stables, which 



298 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

pays twice its cost in the saving of manure. The out- 
side cattle, which occupy the yard, are all the better, 
that the stabled ones do not interfere with them. They 
become habituated to their own quarters, as the others 
do to their's, and all are better for being each in their 
own proper place. It may appear a small matter to 
notice this ; but it is a subject of importance, which 
every one may know who tries it. 

It will be seen that a driving way is built up to the 
barn doors at the ends ; this need not be expensive, 
and will add greatly to the ease and convenience of 
its approach. It is needless to remark, that this barn 
is designed to stand on a shelving piece of ground, or 
on a slope, which will admit of its cellar stables with- 
out much excavation of the earth ; and in such a posi- 
tion it may be economically built. No estimate is 
given of its cost, which must depend upon the price 
of materials, and the convenience of. stone on the 
farm. The size is not arbitrary, but may be either 
contracted or extended, according to the requirements 
of the builder. 



KUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 301 



DESIGN II. 

Here is presented the design of a barn built by our- 
self, about sixteen years since, and standing or. the 
farm we own and occupy ; and which has proved so 
satisfactory in its use, that, save in one or two small 
particulars, which are here amended, we would not, 
for a stock barn, alter it in any degree, nor exchange 
it for one of any description whatever. 

For the farmer who needs one of but half the size, 
or greater, or less, it may be remarked that the extent 
of this need be no hindrance to the building of one 
of any size as the general design may be adopted, 
and carried out, either in whole or in part, according 
to his wants, and the economy of its accommodation 
preserved throughout. The principle of the structure 
is what is intended to be shown. 

The main body of this barn stands on the ground, 
100x50 feet, with eighteen-feet posts, and a broad, 
sheltering roof, of 40 pitch from a horizontal line, and 
truncated at the gables to the width of the main doors 
below. The sills stand 4 feet above the ground, and a 
raised driving way to the doors admits the loads of 
grain and forage into it. The manner of building the 
whole structure would be, to frame and put up the 



302 EURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

main building as if it was to have no attachment what- 
ever, and put on the roof, and board up the gable ends. 
Then frame, and raise adjoining it, on the long sides, 
and on the rear end for the opposite gable end to 
that, is the entrance front to the barn a continuous 
lean-to, 16 feet wide, attaching it to the posts of the 
barn, strongly, by girts. These ranges of lean-to stand 
on the ground level, nearly high enough, however, 
to let a terrier dog under the floors, to keep out the 
rats but quite 3 feet below the sills of the barn. The 
outer posts of the lean-to's should be 12 feet high, arid 
12 i feet apart, from center to center, except at the ex- 
treme corners, which would be 16 feet. One foot below 
the roof-plates of the main building, and across the 
rear gable end, a line of girts should be framed into 
the posts, as a rest for the upper ends of the lean-to 
rafters, that they may pass under, and a foot below 
the lower ends of the main roof rafters, to make a 
break in the roof of one foot, and allow a line of eave 
gutters under it, if needed, and to show the lean-to 
line of roof as distinct from the other. The stables 
are 7 feet high, from the lower floor to the girts over- 
head, which connect them with the main line of bam 
posts; thus giving a loft of 4 feet in height at the 
eaves, and of 12 feet at the junction with the barn. 
In this loft is large storage for hay, and coarse forage, 
and bedding for the cattle, which is put in by side 
windows, level with the loft floor as seen in the 
plate. In the center of the rear, end lean-to, is a large 
door, corresponding with the front entrance to the barn, 
as shown in the design, 12 feet high, and 14 feet wide, 



KTJBAL ARCHITECTURE. 303 

to pass out the wagons and carts which have discharged 
their loads in the barn, having entered at the main 
front door. A line of board, one foot wide, between the 
line of the main and lean-to roofs, is then nailed on, to 
shut up the space; and the rear gable end boarded 
down to the roof of the lean-to attached to it. The 
front end, and the stables on them vertically boarded, 
and battened, as directed in the last design ; the proper 
doors and windows inserted, and the outside is finished. 



INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

Entering the large door, (#,) at the front end, 14 feet 
wide, and 14 feet high, the main floor (<?,) passes 
through the entire length of the barn, and rear lean-to, 
116 feet the last 1C feet through the lean-to and 
sloping 3 feet to the outer sill, and door, (a,) of that 
appendage. On the left of the entrance is a recess, (e,) 
of 20x18 feet, to be used as a thrashing floor, and for 
machinery, cutting feed, &c., &c. 5 feet next the end 
being cut off for a passage to the stable. Beyond this 
is a bay, (,) 18xTO feet, for the storage of hay, or 
grain, leaving a passage at the further end, of 5 feet 
wide, to go into the further stables. This bay is 
bounded on the extreme left, by the line of outside 
posts of the barn. On the right of the main door is a 
granary, (^,) 10x18 feet, two stories high, and a flight 
of steps leading from the lower into the upper room. 
Beyond this is another bay, (J,) corresponding with 
the one just described on the opposite side. The pas- 
sages at the ends of the bays, (( <?,) have steps of 3 



304: 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



feet descent, to bring them down on to a level with 
the stable floors of the lean-to. A passage in each of 
the two long side lean-to's, (<?, ,) 3 feet wide, receives 
the hay forage for cattle, or other stock, thrown into 



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FLOOB PLAN. 



them from the bays, and the lofts over the stables; 
and from them is thrown into the mangers, (A, A.) The 
two apartments in the extreme end lean-to, (/",,/,) 
34x16 feet each, may be occupied as a hospital for 
invalid cattle, or partitioned off for calves, or any other 



KUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 305 

purpose. A calving house for the cows which come in 
during the winter, is always convenient, and one of 
these may be used for such purpose. The stalls, (*', *,) 
are the same as described in Design I, and back of 
them is the passage for the cattle, as they pass in and 
out of their stalls. The stable doors, (j,j,} are six in 
number. Small windows, for ventilation, should be 
cut in the rear of the stalls, as marked, and for throw- 
ing out the manure, with sliding board shutters. This 
completes the barn accommodation giving twenty- 
eight double stalls, where fifty-six grown cattle may 
be tied up, with rooms for twenty to thirty calves in 
the end stables. If a larger stock is kept, young cattle 
may be tied up, with their heads to the bays, on the 
main floor, beyond the thrashing floor, which we prac- 
tice. This will hold forty young cattle. The manure 
is taken out on a wheel-barrow, and no injury done to 
the floor. They will soon eat out a place where their 
forage can be put, and do no injury beyond that to the 
hay in the bays, as it is too closely packed for them 
to draw it out any farther. In this way we can 
accommodate more than a hundred head of cattle, of 
assorted ages. 

The hay in the bays may drop three feet below the 
level of the main floor, by placing a tier of rough tim- 
bers and poles across them, to keep it from the ground, 
and many tons of additional storage be thus provided. 
"We have often stored one hundred and fifty tons of hay 
in this barn ; and it will hold even more, if thoroughly 
packed, and the movable girts over the main floor be 
used, as described in Design I. 



306 KUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The chief advantages in a barn of this plan are, the 
exceeding convenience of getting the forage to the 
stock. When the barn is full, and feeding is first com- 
menced, with a hay knife, we commence on each side 
next the stables, on the top of ^the bays, cut a well 
down to the alley way in front of the mangers, which 
is left open up to the stable roof. This opens a pas- 
sage for the hay to be thrown into the alleys, and in a 
short time it is so fed out on each side, that, the sides 
of the main barn being open to them, the hay can bo 
thrown along their whole distance, and fed to the cattle 
as wanted ; and so at the rear end stables, in the five- 
foot alley adjoining them. If a root cellar be required, 
it may be made under the front part of the main floor, 
and a trap-door lead to it. For a milk dairy, this ar- 
rangement is an admirable one we so used it for four 
years; or for stall-feeding, it is equally convenient. 
One man will do more work, so far as feeding is con- 
cerned, in this barn, than two can do in one of almost 
any other arrangement ; and the yards outside may be 
divided into five separate inclosures, with but little 
expense, and still be large enough for the cattle that 
may want to use them. It matters not what kind of 
stock may be kept in this barn ; it is convenient for 
all alike. Even sheep may be accommodated in it 
with convenience. But low, open sheds, inclosed by 
a yard, are better for them ; with storage for hay over- 
head, and racks and troughs beneath. 

This barn is built of wood. It may be well con- 
structed, with stone underpinning, without mortar, for 
$1,000 to $1,500, as the price of materials may govern. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 307 

And if the collection of the water from the roofs be 
an object, cheap gutters to carry it into one or more 
cisterns may be added, at an expense of $200 to $300. 

As before observed, a barn may be built on this 
principle, of any size, and the stables, or lean-to's may 
only attach to one side or end ; or they may be built 
as mere sheds, with no storage room over the cattle. 
The chief objection to stabling cattle in the l)ody of the 
barn is, the continual decay of the most important tim- 
bers, such as sills, sleepers, &c., <fec., by the leakage of 
the stale, and manure of the cattle on to them, and the 
loss of so much valuable storage as they would occupy, 
for hay and grain. By the plan described, the stables 
nave no attachment to the sills, and other durable barn 
timbers below; and if the stable sills and sleepers 
decay, they are easily and cheaply replaced with others. 
Taking it altogether, we can recommend no better, 
nor, as we think, so good, and so cheap a plan for a 
stock barn, as this. 

We deem it unnecessary to discuss the subject of 
water to cattle yards, as every farm has its own partic- 
ular accommodations, or inconveniences in that regard ; 
and the subject of leading water by pipes into different 
premises, is too well understood to require remark. 
Where these can not be had, and springs or streams are 
not at hand, wells and pumps must be provided, in as 
much convenience as the circumstances of the case will 
admit. Water is absolutely necessary, and that in 
quantity, for stock uses ; and every good manager will 

exercise his best judgment to obtain it. 
13 



308 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



BAKN ATTACHMENTS. 



It may be expected, perhaps, that in treating so 
folly as we have of the several kinds of farm building, 
a full cluster of out-buildings should be drawn and 
exhibited, showing their relative positions and accom- 
modation. This can not be done, however, except as a 
matter of "fancy;" and if attempted, might not be 
suited to the purposes of a single individual, by reason 
of the particular location where they would be situated, 
and the accommodation which the buildings might 
require. Convenience of access to the barns, from the 
fields where the crops are grown, a like convenience 
to get out manures upon those fields, and a ready 
communication with the dwelling house, are a part of 
the considerations which are to govern their position, 
or locality. Economy in labor, in the various avoca- 
tions at the barn, and its necessary attachments ; and 
the greatest convenience in storage, and the housing of 
the various stock, grains, implements, and whatever 
else may demand accommodation, are other consider- 
ations to be taken into the account, all to have a bear- 
ing upon them. Compactness is always an object in 
such buildings, when not obtained at a sacrifice of 



BUBAL ABCHITECTUKE. 309 

some greater advantage, and should be one of the 
items considered in placing them; and in their con- 
struction, next to the arrangement of them in the most 
convenient possible manner for their various objects, a 
due regard to their architectural appearance should be 
studied. Such appearance, where their objects are 
apparent, can easily be secured. Utility should be 
their chief point of expression ; and no style of archi- 
tecture, or finish, can be really bad, where this expres- 
sion is duly consulted, and carried out, even in the 
humblest way of cheapness, or rusticity. 

We have heretofore sufficiently remarked on the 
folly of unnecessary pretension in the farm buildings, 
of any kind ; and nothing can appear, and really be 
more out of place, than ambitious structures intended 
only for the stock, and crops. Extravagant expendi- 
ture on these, any more than an extravagant expendi- 
ture on the dwelling and its attachments, does not add 
to the setting value of the farm, nor to its economical 
management, in a productive capacity ; and he who is 
about to build, should make his proposed buildings a 
study for months, in all their different requirements 
and conveniences, before he commences their erection. 
Mistakes in their design, and location, have cost men a 
whole after life of wear-and-tear of temper, patience, 
and labor, to themselves, and to all who were about 
them ; and it is better to wait even two or three years, 
to fully mature the best plans of building, than by 
hurrying, to mis-locate, mis-arrange, and miss, in fact, 
the very best application in their structure of which 
such buildings are capable. 



310 ETTEAL ARCHITECTUKE. 

A word might also be added about barn-yards. 
The planning and management of these, also, depends 
much upon the course the farmer has to pursue in the 
keeping of his stock, the amount of waste litter, such 
as straw, &c., which he has to dispose of, and the de- 
mands of the farm for animal and composted manures. 
There are different methods of constructing barn-yards, 
in different parts of the country, according to climate 
and soils, and the farmer must best consult his own 
experience, the most successful examples about him, 
and the publications which treat of that subject, in its 
connection with farm husbandry, to which last subject 
this item more properly belongs. 



BUBAL ABOHITEOTUBB. 311 



BABBITS. 



It may appear that we are extending our "Rural 
Architecture ' 2 to an undue length, in noticing a sub- 
ject so little attended to in this country as Rabbit 
accommodations. But, as with other small matters 
which we have noticed, this may create a new source 
of interest and attachment to country life, we conclude 
to give it a place. 

It is a matter of surprise to an American first vis- 
iting England, to see the quantities of game which 
abound at certain seasons of the year in the London 
and other markets of that country, in contrast with the 
scanty supply, or rather no supply at all, existing in 
the markets of American cities. The reason for such 
difference is, that in England, Scotland, Wales, arid 
Ireland, every acre of the soil is appropriated to some 
profitable use, while we, from the abundance of land in 
America, select only the best for agricultural purposes, 
and let the remainder go barren and uncared for. 
Lands appropriated to the rearing of game, when fit 
for farm pasturage or tillage, is unprofitable, generally, 
with us ; but there are thousands of acres barren for 
other purposes, that might be devoted to the breeding 



312 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and pasturage of rabbits, and which, by thus appro- 
priating them, might be turned . to profitable account. 
All the preparation required is, to enclose the ground 
with a high and nearly close paling fence, and the erec- 
tion of a few rude hutches inside, for winter shelter and 
the storage of their food. They will burrow into the 
ground, and breed with great rapidity; and in the fall 
and winter seasons, they will be fat for market with 
the food they gather from the otherwise worthless soil 
over whicb. they run. Rocky, bushy, and evergreen 
grounds, either hill, dale, or plain, are^good for them, 
wherever the soils are dry and friable. The rabbit is 
a gross feeder, living well on what many grazing ani- 
mals reject, and gnawing down all kinds of bushes, 
briars, and noxious weeds. 

The common domestic rabbits are probably the best 
for market purpoaes, and were they to be made an 
object of attention, immense tracts of mountain land 
in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the New York and 
New England highlands could be made available for 
this object. 

Some may think this a small business. So is mak- 
ing pins, and rearing chickens, and bees. But there 
are an abundance of people, whose age and capacity 
are just fitted for it, and for want of other employment 
are a charge upon their friends or the public; and 
now, when our cities and large towns are so readily 
reached by railroads from all parts of the country, our 
farmers should study to apply their land to the pro- 
duction of everything that will find a profitable mar- 
ket. Things unthought of, a few years ago, now find 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 313 

a large consumption in our large cities and towns, 
by the aid of railroads ; and we know of no good rea- 
son, why this production and traffic should not con- 
tinue to an indefinite extent. When the breeding of 
rabbits is commenced, get a good treatise on the breed- 
ing and rearing of them, which may be found at many 
of the bookstores. 

As the rearing of rabbits, and their necessary ac- 
commodation, is not a subject to which we have given 
much personal attention, we applied to Francis Rotch, 
Esq., of Morris, Otsego county, New York, who is 
probably the most accomplished rabbit " fancier " in 
the United States, for information, with which he has 
kindly furnished us. His beautiful and high-bred ani- 
mals have won the highest premiums, at the shows of 
the New York State Agricultural Society. He thus 
answers : 

" I now forward you the promised plan from Mr. 
Alfred Hodman, of Dedham, Massachusetts, which, 
I think, will give you the information you wish upon 
these subjects. 

" Rabbits kept for profit in the vicinity of a city, and 
where there are mills, may be raised at a very small 
cost ; and when once known as an article of food, will 
be liberally paid for by the epicure, for their meat is 
as delicate as a chicken's, and their fat mild, and 
very rich. 

" I am surprised they are not more generally kept, 
as a source of amusement, and for the purposes of 
experiment. 



314 KURAL ARCHITECTURE. . 

" There is, I think, in many, a natural fondness for 
animals, but not easily indulged without more room 
than is often to be found in city residences. Fowls, 
and pigeons, trespass on our neighbors, and are a fre- 
quent cause of trouble. This objection does not hold 
good against the rabbit, which occupies so small a 
space, that where there is an outhouse there may be a 
rabbitry. English children are encouraged in their 
fondness for animals, as tending to good morals and 
good feelings, and as offering a home amusement, in 
contradistinction to street associations " 

Mr. Rotch continues : 

"I have just finished the enclosed drawing of a 
* fancy rabbit,' which I hope will answer your pur- 
pose, as an illustration of what the little animal should 
be in form, color, marking, and carriage, according to 
the decisions of the various societies in and out of 
London, who are its greatest admirers and patrons. 
These amateurs hold frequent meetings for its exhibi- 
tion, at which premiums are awarded, and large prizes 
paid for such specimens as come up to their standard 
of excellence. This standard is, of course, conven- 
tional ; and, as might be expected, is a combination 
of form and color very difficult to obtain based, it 
is true, on the most correct principles of general breed- 
ing; but much of fancy and beauty is added to com. 
plete the requisites of a prize rabbit. For instance, 
the head must be small and clean ; the shoulders 
wide and full ; the chest broad and deep ; the back 
wide, and the loin large. Thus far, these are tho 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 317 

characteristics of all really good and improved animals ; 
to which are to be added, on the score of ' fancy,' an 
eye round, full, and bright; an ear long, broad, and 
pendant, of a soft, delicate texture, dropping nearly per- 
pendicularly by the side of the head this is termed 
its l carriage.' The color must be in rich, unmixed 
masses on the body, spreading itself over the back, 
side, and haunch, but breaking into spots and patches 
on the shoulder, called the ' chain ; ' while that on 
the back is known as the 'saddle.' The head must 
be full of color, broken with white on the forehead and 
cheeks ; the marking over the bridge of the nose and 
down on both sides into the lips, should be dark, and 
in shape somewhat resembling a butterfly, from which 
this mark takes its name ; the ear, however, must be 
uniform in color. Add to all this, a large, full dewlap, 
and you will have a rabbit fit to ' go in and win.'' 

"The most esteemed colors are black and white; 
yellow and white ; tortoise-shell and white ; blue and 
white, and gray and white. These are called ' broken 
colors,' while those of one uniform color are called 
'selfs.'" 

It will be observed that Mr. Rotch here describes 
a beautiful "fancy" variety of "lop-eared" rabbits, 
which he brought from England a few years since. 
They were, originally, natives of Madagascar. He 
continues : 

" The domestic rabbit, in all its varieties, has always 
been, and etill is, a great favorite, ia many parts of 
the European continent : 



318 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

" In Holland, it is bred with reference to color only, 
which must be a pure white, with dark ears, feet, legs, 
and tail; this distribution has a singular effect, but, 
withal, it is a pretty little creature. The French breed 
a long, rangy animal, of great arppa/rent size, but defi- 
cient in depth and breadth, and of course, wanting 
in constitution ; no attention is paid to color, and its 
marking is matter of accident. The White Angola, 
with its beautiful long fur and red eyes, is also a great 
favorite in France. 

"In England, the rabbit formerly held the rank of 
' farm stock ! ' and thousands of acres were exclusively 
devoted to its production; families were supported, 
and rents, rates, and taxes were paid from its increase 
and sale. The ''gray-skins'* went to the hatter, the 
' silver-skins ' were shipped to China, and were dressed 
as furs ; while the flesh was a favorite dish at home. 
This was the course pursued in Yorkshire, Lincoln- 
shire, and many other counties, with their light sandy 
soils, before the more general introduction of root cul- 
ture, and the rotation of crops, gave an increased value 
to such land. Since then, however, I remember visit- 
ing a farm of Lord Onslow's, in Surrey, containing 
about 1,400 acres. It was in the occupation of an 
eminent flock-master and agriculturist, who kept some 
hundreds of hutched rabbits for the sake of their ma- 
nure, which he applied to his turnep crop ; added to 
this, their skins and carcasses were quite an item of 
profit, notwithstanding the care of them required an 
old man and boy, with a donkey and cart. The food 
used was chiefly brewer's grains, miller's waste, bran 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 319 

and hay, with clover and roots, the cost of keeping not 
exceeding two pence a week. The hutches stood under 
a long shed, open on all sides, for the greater conven- 
ience of cleaning and feeding. I was told that the 
manure was much valued by the market gardeners 
round London, who readily paid 2s. 6d. a bushel at the 
rabbi tries. These rabbitries are very numerous in all 
the towns and cities of England, and form a source of 
amusement or profit to all classes, from the man of 
fortune to the day laborer. Kor is it unfrequent that 
this latter produces a rabbit from an old tea-chest, or 
dry-goods box, that wins the prize from its competitor 
of the mahogany hutch or ornamental rabbitry. 

"The food of the rabbit embraces great variety, 
including grain of all kinds, bran, pea-chaff', miller's 
waste, brewer's grains, clover and other hay, and the 
various weeds known as plantain, dock, mallow, dan- 
delion, purslain, thistles, &c., &c. 

" The rabbit thus easily conforms itself to the means, 
condition, and circumstances of its owner; occupies 
but little space, breeds often, comes early to maturity, 
and is withal, a healthy animal, requiring however, 
to be kept clean, and to be cautiously fed with succu- 
lent food, which must always be free from dew or 
rain water is unnecessary to them when fed with 
'greens.' My own course of feeding is, one gill of 
oats in the morning, with a medium-sized cabbage leaf, 
or what I may consider its equivalent in any other 
vegetable food, for the rabbit in confinement must be. 
as already stated, cautiously fed with what is succu- 
lent. At noon, I feed a handful' of cut hay or clover 



320 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

chaff, and in the evening the same as in the morning 
To does, when suckling, I give what they will eat of 
both green and dry food. The cost to me is about 
three cents per week, per head. 

" I by no means recommend this as the best, or the 
most economical mode of feeding, but it happens to 
suit my convenience. "Were I in a town, or near mills, 
I should make use of other and cheaper substitutes. 
My young rabbits, when taken from the doe, say at 
eight, ten, or twelve weeks old, are turned out together 
till about six months old, when it becomes necessary 
to take them up, and put them in separate hutches, to 
prevent their fighting and destroying each other. The 
doe at that age is ready to breed ; her period of gesta- 
tion is about thirty-one or two days, and she produces 
from three or four to a dozen young at a ' litter.' It 
is not well to let her raise more than six, or even four 
at once the fewer, the larger and finer the produce. 

" Young rabbits are killed for the table at any age, 
from twelve weeks to twelve months old, and are a 
very acceptable addition to the country larder. The 
male is not allowed to remain with the doe, lest he 
should destroy the young ones. 

" Hutches are made singly, or in stacks, to suit the 
apartment, which should be capable of thorough ven- 
tilation. The best size is about three feet long, twc 
feet deep, and fourteen inches high, with a small apart- 
ment partitioned off from one end, nearly a foot wide, 
as a breeding place for the doe. A wire door forms 
the front, and an opening is left behind for cleaning ; 
the floor should have a descent to the back of the 



RURAL AECHTTECTTTRE. 821 

hutch of two inches. All edges should be tinned, to 
save them from being gnawed. 

" Having now given the leading characteristics and 
qualities which constitute a good ' fancy lop-eared rab- 
bit,' and its general management, allow me to remark 
on the striking difference observable between Ameri- 
cans and the people of many other countries, as to a 
fondness for animals, or what are termed ' fancy pets,' 
of and for which we, as a people, know and care very 
little. Indeed, we scarcely admit more than a selfish 
fellowship with the dog, and but too seldom does our 
attachment even for this faithful companion, place him 
beyond the reach of the omnipotent dollar. 

" The operatives, mechanics, and laborers, in other 
countries, seem to have a perfect passion for such pur- 
suits, and take the greatest interest and pride in breed- 
ing and perfecting the lesser animals, though often 
obliged to toil for the very food they feed to them. 
Here, too, home influences are perceived to be good, 
and are encouraged by the employer, as supplying the 
place of other and much more questionable pursuits 
and tastes." 

We here present the elevation, and floor plan of Mr. 
Rodman's rabbitry, together with the front and rear 
views of the hutches within them : 




NO. I. ELEVATION. 




NO It. MAIN FLOOR FLAM. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 323 

No. 1 is the gable end elevation of the building, with 
a door and window. 

No. 2 is the main-floor plan, or living room for the 
rabbits. 

EXPLANATION. 

A, the doe's hutches, with nest boxes attached. B, 
hutches three feet long, with movable partitions for 
the young rabbits ; the two lower hutches are ased for 
the stock bucks. C, a tier of grain boxes on the floor 
for feeding the rabbits the covers sloping out toward 
the room. D, small trapdoor, leading into the ma- 
nure cellar beneath. E, large trapdoor leading into 
root cellar. F, troughs for leading off urine from rear 
of hutches into the manure cellar at K, K. G, wood- 
en trunk leading from chamber above No. 3, through 
this into manure cellar. H, trap opening into manure 
cellar. I, stairs leading into loft No. 3, with hinged 
trapdoor overhead ; when open, it will turn up against 
the wall, and leave a passage to clear out the hutches. 

NOTE. The grain boxes are one foot high in front, 
and fifteen inches at the back, with sloping bottoms, 
and sloping covers. The floors of the hutches have a 
slope of two inches back. The hutches are furnished, 
at the- back of the floor, with pieces of zinc, to keep 
them free from the drippings from above. The hutches 
are 16 inches high, 3 feet long, and 2 feet deep. 

The foregoing plans and explanations might perhaps 
be sufficient for the guidance of such as wish to con- 
struct a rabbitry for their own use ; but as a complete 
arrangement of all the rooms which may be conveni- 
ently appropriated to this object, to make it a complete 



324 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



thing, may be acceptable to the reader, we conclude, 
even at the risk of prolixity, to insert the tipper loft, 
and cellar apartments, with which we have been fur- 
nished ; hoping that our youthful friends will set them- 
selves about the construction of a branch of rural 
employment so home-attaching in its associations. 




si 9 a 
i r i 



7 ff 6 * 3 

I 1 I ' 1 



/ 

I I 



NO. III. LOFT OR GARRET. 



No. 3 is the loft or chamber story, next above the 
main floor. 



EXPLANATION. 



A, place for storing hay. B, stairs leading from 
below. C, room for young rabbits. D, trapdoor 
into trunk leading to manure cellar. E, partition four 
feet high. This allows of ventilation between the two 
windows, in summer, which would be cut off, were the 
partition carried all the way up. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



325 




NO. IV. CELLAR. 



No. 4: is the cellar under the rabbitry. 



EXPLANATION. 



A, manure cellar. B, root cellar. C, stairs lead- 
ing to first, or main floor. D, stairs leading outside. 
E, window lighting both rooms of cellar. 

!N"o. 5 is a front section of rabbit hutches, eight in 
number, two in a line, four tiers high, one above 
another, with wire-screened doors, hinges, and buttons 
for fastening. A, the grain trough, is at the bottom. 

No. 6 is the floor section of the hutches, falling, as 
before mentioned, two inches from front to rear. 

A, is the door to lift up, for cleaning out the floors. 
B, is the zinc plate, to carry off the urine and running 



MO. V. 

'!'" l! l!!'lllli'llll!l|"H!lll 



NO. VI 

lillliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuitiiiiiiii 




1 



fotaies'tdzjio 

I i I I I I I I i j l 




FRONT OF HUTCH. 



D 



NO. VII. 

IIUlUUIIlHtlik 





A 



RBAR OF HUTCH. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 327 

wash of the floors. C, is the trough for carrying off 
this offal into the manure cellars, through the trunk, 
as seen in No. 2. 

No. 7 is a rear section of hutches, same as in No. 5, 
with the waste trough at the bottom leading into the 
trench before described, with the cross section, No. 8, 
before described in No. 6. 

A, a grated door at the back of the hutch, for ventila- 
tion in summer, and covered with a thin board in winter. 
B, a flap-door, four inches wide, which is raised for 
cleaning out the floor ; under this door is a space of one 
inch, for passing out the urine of the rabbits. C, are 
buttons for fastening the doors. D, the backs of the 
bedrooms, without any passage out on back side. 

This matter of the rabbitry, and its various explana- 
tions, may be considered by the plain, matter-of-fact 
man, as below the dignity of people pursuing the useful 
and 'money-making business of life. Very possible. 
But many boys for whose benefit they are chiefly 
introduced and men, even, may do worse than to 
spend their time in such apparent trifles. It is better 
than going to a horse-race. It is better even than 
going to a trotting match, where fast men, as well as 
fast horses congregate. It is better, too, than a thou- 
sand other places where boys want to go, when they 
have nothing to interest them at home. 

One half of the farmer's boys, who, discontented at 
home, leave it for something more congenial to their 
feelings and tastes, do so simply because of the exces- 
sive dullness, and want of interest in objects to attract 
them there, and keep them contented. Boys, in 



328 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

America at least, are apt to be smart. So their parents 
think, at all events ; and too smart they prove, to stay 
at home, and follow the beaten track of their fathers, 
as their continual migration from the paternal roof too 
plainly testifies. This, in many cases,. is the fault of 
the parents themselves, because they neglect those 
little objects of interest to which the minds and tastes 
of their sons are inclined, and for want of which they 
imagine more attractive objects abroad, although in 
the search they often fail in finding them. We are a 
progressive people. Our children are not always con- 
tent to be what their fathers are ; and parents must 
yield a little to " the spirit of the age " in which they 
live. And boys pay too, as they go along, if properly 
treated. They should be made companions, not ser- 
vants. Many a joyous, hearty spirit, who, when prop- 
erly encouraged, comes out a whole man at one-and- 
twenty, if kept in curb, and harnessed down by a hard 
parent, leaves the homestead, with a curse and a kick, 
determined, whether in weal or in woe, never to return. 
Under a different course of treatment, he would have 
fixed his home either at his birthplace, or in its im- 
mediate vicinity, and in a life of frugality, usefulness, 
and comparative ease, blessed his parents, his neigh- 
borhood, and possibly the world, with a useful exam- 
ple all, perhaps, grown out of his youthful indul- 
gence in the possession of a rabbit-warren, or some 
like trifling matter. 

This may appear to be small morals, as well as small 
business. "We admit it. But those who have been 
well, and indulgently, as well as methodically trained, 



KUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 329 

may look back and see the influence which all such 
little things had upon their early thoughts and inclina- 
tions ; and thus realize the importance of providing 
for the amusements and pleasures of children in their 
early years. The dovecote, the rabbitry, the poultry- 
yard, the sheep-fold, the calf-pen, the piggery, the 
young colt of a favorite mare, the yoke of yearling 
steers, or a fruit tree which they have planted, and 
nursed, and called it, or the fruit it bears, their own, 
anything, in fact, which they can call theirs are so 
many objects to bind boys to their homes, and hallow 
it with a thousand nameless blessings and associations, 
known only to those who have been its recipients. 
Heaven's blessings be on the family homestead ! 

" Be it ever so humble, there '& no place like home 1 " 

sung the imaginary maid of Milan, the beautiful crea- 
tion of John Howard Payne, when returning from 
the glare and pomp of the world, to her native cottage 
in the mountains of Switzerland. And, although all 
out of date, and conventionally vulgar this sentiment 
may be now considered, such is, or should be the sub- 
dued, unsophisticated feeling of all natives of the farm 
house, and the country cottage. We may leave the 
quiet roof of our childhood ; we may mix in the bustling 
contentions of the open world ; we may gain its treas- 
ures ; we may enjoy its greatness, its honors, and its 
applause ; but there are times when they will all fade 
into nothing, in comparison with the peace, and qui- 
etude, and tranquil happiness of a few acres of land, 
a comfortable roof, and contentment therewith 1 



330 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



DAIEY BUILDINGS. 



"Wherever the dairy is made an important branch of 
farm production, buildings for its distinct accommo- 
dation are indispensable. The dairy is as much a 
manufactory as a cotton mill, and requires as much 
conveniences in its own peculiar line. We therefore 
set apart a building, on purpose for its objects ; and 
either for cheese, or butter, separate conveniences are 
alike required. We commence with the 



CHEESE DAIRY HOUSE. 

This building is one and a half stories high, with a 
broad, spreading roof of 45 pitch ; the ground plan 
is 10 feet between joists, and the posts 16 feet high. 
An ice-house, made on the plan already described, is 
at one end, and a wood-shed at the opposite end, of the 
same size. This building is supposed to be erected 
near the milking sheds of the farm, and in contiguity 
to the feeding troughs of the cows, or the piggery, and 
adapted to the convenience of feeding the whey tc 




CHEESE DAIRY HOUSE. 



o 



GROUND PLAN. 



HTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 333 

whichever of these animals the dairyman may select, 
as both, or either are required to consume it ; and to 
which it may be conveyed in spouts from the dairy- 
room. 

INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT. 

The front door is protected by a light porch, (a,) 
entering by a door, (5,) the main dairy room. The 
cheese presses, (e, c,) occupy the left end of the room, 
between which a passage leads through a door, (,) into 
the wood-shed, (A,) open on all sides, with its roof rest- 
ing on four posts set in the ground. The large cheese- 
table, (<#,) stands on the opposite end, and is 3 feet 
wide. In the center of the room is a chimney, (<?,) 
with a whey and water boiler, and vats on each side. 
A flight of stairs, (/,) leading into the storage room 
above, is in the rear. A door, (5,) on the extreme 
right, leads into the ice-house, (<?.) There are four 
windows to the room two on each side, front and 
rear. In the loft are placed the shelves for storing the 
cheese, as soon as sufficiently prepared on the tempo- 
rary table below. This loft is thoroughly ventilated by 
windows, and the heat of the sun upon it ripens the 
cheese rapidly for market. A trapdoor, through the 
floors, over which is hung a tackle, admits the cheese 
from below, or passes it down, when prepared for 
market. 

The cheese house should, if possible, be placed on a 
sloping bank, when it is designed to feed the whey to 
pigs ; and even when it is fed to cows, it is more con- 
venient to pass it to them on a lower level, than to 



334 KUBAL AKCHITECTUKE. 

carry it out in buckets. It may, however, it' on level 
ground, be discharged into vats, in a cellar below, and 
pumped out as wanted. A cellar is convenient in- 
deed, almost indispensable under the cheese dairy; 
and water should be so near as to be easily pumped, 
or drawn, into the vats and kettles used in running up 
the curd, or for washing the utensils used in the work. 
When the milk is kept over night, for the next morn- 
ing's curd, temporary tables may be placed near the 
ice-room, to hold the pans or tubs in which it may be 
set, and the ice used to temper the milk to the proper 
degree for raising the cream. If the dairy be of such 
extent as to require larger accommodation than the 
plan here suggested, a room or two may be partitioned 
ofl* from the main milk and pressing-room, for wash- 
ing the vessels and other articles employed, and for 
setting* the milk. Every facility should be made for 
neatness in all the operations connected with the work. 
Different accommodations are required, for making 
the different kinds of cheese which our varied markets 
demand, and in the fitting up of the dairy-house, no 
positive plan of arrangement can be laid down, suited 
alike to all the work which may be demanded. The 
dairyman, therefore, will best arrange all these for the 
particular convenience which he requires. The main 
plan, and style of building however, we think will be 
generally approved, as being in an agreeable architec- 
tural style, and of convenient construction and shape 
for the objects intended. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 835 



THE BUTTER DAIRY. 



This, if pursued on the same farm with the cheese 
dairy, and at different seasons of the year, may be 
carried on in the lower parts of the same building. 
But as it is usually a distinct branch of business, when 
prosecuted as the chief object on a farm, it should have 
accommodations of its own kin<^ which should be fitted 
up specially for that purpose. 

We cannot, perhaps, suggest a better model of a 
building for the butter dairy, than the one just sub- 
mitted for the cheese-house, only that there is no neces- 
sity for the upper story ; and the posts of the main 
building should not stand more than nine feet above 
the sills. A good, walled cellar, well lighted, as a 
room for setting the milk, is indispensable, with a 
broad, open flight of steps, from the main floor above, 
into it. Here, too, should stand the stone slabs, where 
the butter is worked, and the churns, to be driven by 
hand, or water, or animal power, as the two latter may 
be provided, and introduced into the building by belt, 
shaft, or crank. If running water can be brought on 



336 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

to the milk-shelves, from a higher level, which, fo 
this purpose, should have curbs two or three inches 
high on their sides, it can flow in a constant gentle 
current over them, among the pans, from a receiving 
vat, in which ice is deposited, to keep the milk at the 
proper temperature about 55 Fahrenheit for rais- 
ing the cream ; and if the quantity of milk be large, 
the shelves can be so a -ranged, by placing each tier of 
shelf lower than the Last, like steps, that the water 
may pass among them all before it escapes from the 
room. Such a mode of applying water and ice, ren- 
ders the entire process of cream-rising almost certain 
in all weathers, and is highly approved wherever it has 
been practiced. The low temperature of the room, by 
the aid of water and ice, is also beneficial to the butter 
packed in kegs, keeping it cool and sweet as much 
like a spring-house as possible, in its operation. 

The washing and drying of pans, buckets, churns, 
and the heating of water, should all be done in the 
room above, where the necessary kettles are set, and 
kept from contact with the cool atmosphere of the 
lower room. The latter apartment should have a well- 
laid stone or brick floor, filled and covered with a 
strong cement of water lime, and sloping gradually to 
the outer side, where all the water may pass off by a 
drain, and everything kept sweet and clean. The but- 
termilk may, as in the case of the whey, in the cheese 
dairy, be passed off in spouts to the pigsty, which 
should not be far distant. 

As all this process of arrangement, however, must 
conform somewhat to the shape of the ground, the 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 337 

locality, and the facilities at hand where it may be 
constructed ; it is hardly possible to give any one system 
of detail which is applicable to an uniform mode of 
structure ; and much will be left to the demands and 
the skill of the dairyman himself, in the plan he may 
finally adopt. 



THE WATER RAM. 

As water, and that of a good quality, and in abun- 
dant quantity, is indispensable to the various demands 
of the farm, it is worth some pains to provide it in the 
most economical manner, and at the most convenient 
points for use. In level grounds, wells are generally 
dug, and the water drawn up by buckets or pumps. 
In a hilly country, springs, and streams from higher 
grounds, may be brought in by the aid of pipes, the 
water flowing naturally, under its own head, wherever 
it may be wanted, away from its natural stream. 

But, of all contrivances to elevate water from a 
lower fountain, or current, to a higher level, by its own 
action, the Water Ram is the most complete in its 
operation, and perfect in its construction, of anything 
within our knowledge. And as it may not be generally 
known to our readers, at our request, Messrs. A. B. 
ALLEN & Co., of New York who keep them of all 
sizes for sale, at their agricultural warehouse, No's. 



338 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



189 and 191, "Water-street have kindly furnished us 
with the following description of the machine, given 
by W. & B. Douglass, of Middletown, Connecticut, 
manufacturers of the article : 




WATER RAM. 



"H, spring or brook. C, drive, or supply-pipe, 
from brook to ram. Gr, discharge pipe, conveying 
water to house or other point required for use. B, D, 
A, E, I, the Ram. J, the plank or other foundation 
to which the machine is secured for use. 

"The various uses of the ram are at once obvious, 
viz., for the purposes of irrigating lands, and supply- 
ing dwellings, barnyards, gardens, factories, villages, 
engines, railroad stations, &c., with running water. 

" The simplicity of the operation of this machine, 
together with its effectiveness, and very apparent dura- 
bility, renders it decidedly the most important and 



BUBAL ARCHirECTUBE. 339 

valuable apparatus yet developed in hydraulics, for 
forcing a portion of a running stream of water to any 
elevation, proportionate to the fall obtained. It is per- 
fectly applicable where no more than eighteen inches 
fall can be had ; yet, the greater the fall applied, the 
more powerful the operation of the machine, and the 
higher the water may be conveyed. The relative pro- 
portions between the water raised, and wasted, is de- 
pendent entirely upon the relative height of the spring 
or source of supply above the ram, and the elevation 
to which it is required to be raised. The quantity 
raised varying in proportion to the height to which it 
is conveyed, with a given fall ; also, the distance which 
the water has to be conveyed, and consequent length 
of pipe, has some bearing on the quantity of water 
raised and discharged by the ram ; as, the longer the 
pipe through which the water has to be forced by the 
machine, the greater the friction to be overcome, and 
the more the power consumed in the operation ; yet, it 
is common to apply the ram for conveying the water 
distances of one and two hundred rods, and up eleva- 
tions of one and two hundred feet. Ten feet fall from 
the spring, or brook, to the ram, is abundantly sufficient 
for forcing up the water to any elevation under say one 
hundred and fifty feet in height, above the level of the 
point where the ram is located ; and the same ten feet 
fall will raise the water to a much higher point than 
above last named, although in a diminished quantity, 
in proportion as the height is increased. When a suf- 
ficient quantity of water is raised with a given fall, it 

is not advisable to increase said fall, as in so doing the 
14* 



340 JSUKAL ABCHITECTUKE. 

force with which the ram works is increased, and tue 
amount of labor which it has to perform greatly aug- 
mented, the wear and tear of the machine proportion- 
ably increased, and the durability of the same lessened ; 
BO that economy, in the expense of keeping the ram 
in repair, would dictate that no greater fall should be 
applied, for propelling the ram, than is sufficient to 
raise a requisite supply of water to the place of use. 
To enable any person to make the calculation, as to 
what fall would be sufficient to apply to the ram, to 
raise a sufficient supply of water to his premises, we 
would say, that in conveying it any ordinary distance, 
of say fifty or sixty rods, it may be safely calculated 
that about one-seventh part of the water can be raised 
and discharged at an elevation above the ram five 
times as high as the fall which is applied to the ram, 
or one-fourteenth part can be raised and discharged, 
say ten times as high as the fall applied ; and so in 
that proportion, as the fall or rise is varied. Thus, if 
the ram be placed under a head or fall of five feet, of 
every seven gallons drawn from the spring, one may 
be raised twenty-five feet, or half a gallon fifty feet. 
Or with ten feet fall applied to the machine, of every 
fourteen gallons drawn from the spring, one gallon 
may be raised to the height of one hundred feet above 
the machine ; and so in like proportion, as the fall or 
rise is increased or diminished. 

" It is presumed that the above illustrations of what 
the machine will do under certain heads and rise, will 
be sufficient for all practical purposes, to enable pur- 
chasers of the article to determine, with a sufficient 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 341 

degree of nicety, as to the head or fall to apply to the 
ram for a given rise and distance, which they may 
wish to overcome in raising water from springs 01 
brooks to their premises, or other places where water 
is required. Yet, we have the pleasure of copying the 
following article, which we find in the 'American 
Agriculturist,' a very valuable journal published by 
C. M. Saxton, 152 Fulton-street, New York, which 
may serve to corroborate our statements as to what our 
ram will accomplish under given circumstances : 

" ' The following is a correct statement of a water 
ram I have had in successful operation for the last six 
months : 

'"1. The fall from the surface of the water in the 
spring is four feet. 2. The quantity of water delivered 
per ten minutes, at my house, is three and a quarter 
gallons, and that discharged at the ram twenty-five 
gallons. Thus, nearly one-seventh part of the water 
is saved. 3. The perpendicular height of the place of 
delivery above the ram is nineteen feet say fifteen 
feet above the surface of the spring. 4. The length 
of the pipe leading from the ram to the house is one 
hundred and ninety feet. 5. The pipe leading from 
the ram to the house has three right angles, rounded 
by curves. 6. The ram is of Douglass' make, of a 
small size. 7. The length of the drive or supply-pipe 
is sixty feet. Its inner diameter one inch. 8. The 
depth of water in the spring, over the drive pipe, is 
six inches. 9. The inner diameter of the pipe, con- 
ducting the water from the ram to the house, is three- 
eighths of an inch. 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 

" ' I consider it very essential that the drive or 
supply-pipe should be laid as straight as possible, as 
in the motion of the water in this pipe consists the 

power of the ram. 

Y. H. HALLOCK. 

NORTH-EAST CENTER, N. Y., April 3d, 1849.' " 

We have seen several of these rams at work ; and in 
any place where the required amount of fall can be 
had, with sufficient water to supply the demand, we 
are entirely satisfied that no plan so cheap and effi- 
cient can be adopted, by which to throw it to a higher 
level, and at a distance from the point of its flow. We 
heartily commend it to all who need a thing of the 
kind, and have at hand the facilities in the way of a 
stream for its use. 

It is hardly worth while to add, that by the aid of 
the ram, water can be thrown into every room in the 
dwelling house, as well as into the various buildings, 
and yards, and fields of the farm, wherever it may be 
required. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 



343 



RAT-PROOF GRANARY. 



This plan, and description, we take from an agri- 
cultural periodical published in New York "The 
Plow." "We can recommend no plan of a better kind 
for the objects required. It is an old-fashioned struc- 
ture, which many of our readers will recognize only, 
that it is improved in some of its details. 




The illustration above needs but little description. 
The posts should be stone, if procurable, one foot 
square, and four feet long, set one-third in the ground, 
and capped with smooth flat stones, four to six inches 



3-14: EUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

thick, and two feet, at least, across. If wooden posts 
are used, make them sixteen inches square, and set 
them in a hole previously filled, six inches deep, with 
charcoal, or rubble stone and lime grouting, and fill 
around the posts with the same. Four inches from the 
fop, nail on a flange of tin or sheet iron, six inches 
wide, the projecting edge of which may be serrated, 
as a further preventive against the depredating rascals 
creeping around. The steps are hinged to the door- 
sill, and should have a cord and weight attached to the 
door, so that whenever it is shut, the steps should be 
up also ; this would prevent the possibility of careless- 
ness in leaving them down for the rats to walk up. 
The sides should be made of slats, with large cracks 
between, and the floor under the corn-crib, with numer- 
ous open joints ; no matter if shattered corn falls 
through, let the pigs and chickens have it ; the circu- 
lation of the air through the pile of corn, will more 
than pay for all you will lose through the floor. If 
you intend to have sweet grain, be sure to have a ven- 
tilator in the roof, and you may see by the vane on 
the top of it, hew the wind will always blow favorably 
for you. 



BUBAL AKCHITECTUBE. 345 






IMPKOVED DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



Having completed the series of subjects which we 
had designed for this work, we are hardly content to 
send it out to the public, without inviting the attention 
of our farmers, arid others who dwell in the country 
and occupy land, to the importance of surrounding 
themselves with the best breeds of domestic animals, 
as an item of increased profit in their farm manage- 
ment, and as a subject of interest and satisfaction to 
themselves in the embellishment of their grounds. 

"We have addressed ourselves through these pages to 
the good sense of men who, in their general character 
and pursuits, comprise the most stable class of our 
population. TVe have endeavored to impress upoi. 
them the importance of providing all the conveniences 
and comforts to themselves, in their dwellings, as well 
as the due provision for their animals and crops, in 
the rougher farm buildings, which their circumstances 
will admit ; and we trust they have been shown that 
it is proper economy so to do. We have, in addition 
to these, somewhat dilated upon objects of embellish- 
ment, in the way of grounds to surround them, and 
trees to beautify them, which will in no way interfere 
with a just economy, and add greatly to the pleasure 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and interest of their occupation. "We now want them 
to introduce into those grounds such domestic animals 
as shall add to their ornament, and be far more profit- 
able to themselves, than the inferior things which are 
called the common, or native stock of the country. 
Without this last lesson, half our object would be lost. 
Of what avail will be the best provision for the con- 
veniences of a family, and the labors of the farm, if 
the farm be badly cultivated, and a worthless or infe- 
rior stock be kept upon it? The work is but half done 
at best ; and the inferiority of the last will only become 
more conspicuous and contemptible, in contrast with 
the superior condition of the first. 

It is not intended to go into an examination of the 
farm-stock of our country at large, nor into their modes 
of treatment; but, to recommend such varieties of 
animals as are profitable in their breeding and keep- 
ing, both to the professional farmer in his vocation, and 
to such as, beyond this, find them an object of con- 
venience, or of pleasure. 

"We, in America, are comparatively a young people. 
Yet, we have surmounted necessity. We have arrived 
at the period when we enjoy the fruits of competence 
some of us, the luxuries of wealth. A taste for supe- 
rior domestic animals has been increasing, and spread- 
ing over the United States for many years past; so 
that now, a portion of our farmers and country people 
understand somewhat of the subject. It has been tho- 
roughly demonstrated, that good farm stock is better, 
and more profitable than poor stock. Still, a taste for 
good stock, and the advantages of keeping them, over 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 347 

the common stock of the country, is not geiierally 
understood ; and that taste has to be cultivated. It is 
not altogether a thing of nature, any more than other 
faculties which require the aid of education to devel- 
ope. We have known many people who had a fine 
perception in many things : an eye for a fine house, 
pleasant grounds, beautiful trees, and all the surround- 
ings which such a place might command; and when 
these were complete, would place about it the veriest 
brutes, in the way of domestic animals, imaginable. 
The resident of the city, who lives at his country-house 
in summer, and selects a picture of mean or inferior 
quality, to hang up in his house by way of ornament, 
would be laughed at by his friends ; yet he may drive 
into his grounds the meanest possible creature, in the 
shape of a cow, a pig, or a sheep, and it is all very 
well for neither he nor they know any better; yet, 
the one is quite as much out of place as the other. 
The man, too, who, in good circumstances, will keep 
and drive a miserable horse, is the ridicule of his 
neighbors, because everybody knows what a good horse 
is, and that he should be well kept. Yet, the other 
stock on his farm may be the meanest trash in exis- 
tence, and it creates no remark. On the contrary, one 
who at any extra cost has supplied himself with stock 
of the choicer kinds, let their superiority be ever so 
apparent, has often been the subject of ribaldry, by 
his unthinking associates. And such, we are sorry to 
say, is still the case in too many sections of our coun- 
try. But, on the whole, both our public spirit, and 
our intelligence, is increasing, in such things. 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

Now, we hold it to be a practical fact, that no farm, 
or country place, can be complete in its appointments, 
without good stock upon it ; and it is useless for any- 
one to suppose that his farm, or his place, is finistied, 
without it. The man who has a fine lawn, of any 
extent, about his house, or a park adjoining, should 
have something to graze it for he cannot aiford to let 
it lie idle ; nor is it worth while, even if he can aiford 
it, to be mowing the grass in it every fortnight during 
the summer, to make it sightly. Besides this, grass 
will grow under the trees, and that too thin, and short, 
for cutting. This ground must, of course, be pastured. 
Now, will he go and get a parcel of mean scrubs of 
cattle, or sheep, to graze it, surrounding his very door, 
and disgracing him by their vulgar, plebeian looks, and 
yielding him no return, in either milk, beef, mutton, 
or wool ? Of course not, if he be a wise, or a provi- 
dent man, or one who has any true taste in such mat- 
ters. H*e will rather go and obtain the best stock he 
can get, of breeds suited to the climate, and soil, which 
will give him a profitable return, either in milk, or 
flesh, or their increase, for his outlay ; and which will 
also embellish his grounds, and create an interest in 
his family for their care, and arrest the attention of 
those who visit him, or pass by his grounds. Of the 
proper selection of this branch of his stock, we shall 
now discourse. 

In cattle, if your grounds be rich, and your grass 
abundant, the short-horns are the stock for them. They 
are "the head and front," in appearance, size, and 
combination of good qualities the very aristocracy 



KURAL AKCIHTKCTURE. 349 

cf all neat cattle. A well-bred, and well developed 
short-horn cow, full in the qualities which belong to 
ner character, is the very perfection of her kind. Her 
large, square form ; fine orange, russet, or nut-colored 
muzzle ; bright, prominent, yet mild, expressive eye , 
small, light horn ; thin ears ; clean neck ; projecting 
brisket ; deep, and broad chest ; level back, and loin ; 
broad hips'; large, and well-spread udder, with its 
silky covering of hair, and clean, taper, wide-standing 
teats, giving twenty to thirty quarts of rich milk in a 
day ; deep thigh, and twist ; light tail ; small, short 
legs ; and, added to this, her brilliant and ever- varying 
colors of all, and every -intermingling shades of red, and 
white, or either of them alone; such, singly, or in groups, 
standing quietly under the shade of trees, grazing in the 
open field, or quietly resting upon the grass, are the very 
perfection of a cattle picture, and give a grace and 
beaut}' to the grounds which no living thing can equal. 

Nor, in this laudation of the short-horns, are we at 
all mistaken. Go into the luxuriant blue-grass pas- 
tures of Kentucky ; the rich, and wide-spread grazing 
regions of central and lower Ohio; the prairies of 
Indiana, and Illinois, just now beginning to receive 
them; the sweet, and succulent pastures of central 
and western New York, or on the Hudson river ; and 
now and then, a finely -cultivated farm in other sections 
of the United States, where their worth has become 
established ; and they present pictures of thrift, of 
excellence, of beauty, and of profit, that no other neat 
cattle can pretend to equal. 

As a family cow, nothing can excel the short-horn 
in the abundance and richness of her rnilk, and in the 
profit she will yield to her owner; and, on every place 
where she can be supplied with abundance of food, 



350 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

she stands without a rival. From the short-horns, 
spring those magnificent fat oxen and steers, which 
attract so much admiration, and carry off the prizes, 
at our great cattle shows. Thousands of them, of less 
or higher grade in blood, are fed every year, in the 
Scioto, the Miami, and the other great feeding valleys 
of the west, and in the fertile corn regions of Kentucky, 
and taken to the New York and Philadelphia markets. 
As a profitable beast to the grazier, and the feeder, 
nothing can equal them in early maturity and excel- 
lence. For this purpose, the short horns are steadily 
working their way all over the vast cattle-breeding 
regions of the west ; and, for the richness and abun- 
dance of her milk, the cow is eagerly introduced into 
the dairy, and milk-producing sections of the other 
states, where she will finally take rank, and maintain her 
superiority over all others, on rich and productive soils. 
On lighter soils, with shorter pastures ; or on hilly 
and stony grounds, another race of cattle may be kept, 
better adapted to such localities, than those just de- 
scribed. They are the Devons also an English breed, 
and claimed there as an aboriginal race in England ; 
and if any variety of cattle, exhibiting the blood-like 
beauty, and fineness of limb, the deep uniformity of 
color, and the gazelle-like brilliancy of their eye, can 
claim a remote ancestry, and a pure descent, the De- 
vons can make such claim, beyond almost any other. 
They were introduced save now and then an isolated 
animal at an earlier day into the United States some 
thirty-two or three years ago, about the same time with 
the short-horns ; and like them, have been added to, 
and improved by frequent importations since ; until 
now, probably our country will show some specimens 
equal m quality to their high general character in 



liUKAL AiCUUTKCTlltK. 351 

the laud of their nativity. Unlike the short-horn, the 
Devon is a much lighter animal, with a like fine ex- 
pression of countenance ; an elevated horn ; more agile 
in form ; yet finer in limb and bone ; a deep mahog- 
any-red in color ; and of a grace, and beauty in figure 
excelled by no other breed whatever. The Devon cow 
is usually a good milker, for her size ; of quiet temper ; 
docile in her habits ; a quick feeder ; and a most satis- 
factory animal in all particulars. From the Devons, 
spring those beautifully-matched red working-oxen, 
so much admired in our eastern states ; the superiors 
to which, in kindness, docility, endurance, quickness, 
and honesty of labor, no country can produce. In the 
quality of their beef, they are unrivaled by any breed 
of cattle in the United States ; but in their early matu- 
rity for that purpose, are not equal to the short-horns. 

Several beautiful herds of Devons are to be found 
in New York, in Maryland, in Connecticut, and in 
Massachusetts ; and some few in other states, where they 
can be obtained by those who wish to purchase. 

Another branch of domestic stock should also excite 
the attention of those who wish to embellish their 
grounds, as well as to improve the quality of their 
mutton obtaining, withal, a fleece of valuable wool. 
These are the Southdown, and the Cotswold, Leicester, 
or other improved breeds of long-wooled sheep. There 
is no more peaceful, or beautiful small animal to be 
seen in an open park, or pleasure ground, or in the 
paddock of a farm, than these. 

The Southdown, is a fine, compact, and solid sheep, 
with dark face and legs ; quiet in its habits, mild in 
disposition, of a medium quality, and medium weight 
of fleece ; and yielding a kind of mutton unsurpassed 
in flavor and delicacy equal, in the estimation of many. 
72 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

to the finest venison. The carcass of a Southdown 
wether, when well fatted, is large, weighing, at two to 
three years old, a hundred to a hundred and twenty 
pounds. The ewe is a prolific breeder, and a good 
nurse. They are exceedingly hardy, and will thrive 
equally well in all climates, and on all our soils, where 
they can live. There is no other variety of sheep which 
has been bred to that high degree of perfection, in Eng- 
land. The great Southdown breeder, Mr. Webb, of 
Batraharn, has often received as high as fifty, to one 
hundred guineas, in a season, for the use of a single 
ram. Such prices show the estimation in which the 
best Southdowns are held there, as well as their great 
popularity among the English farmers. 

The Cotswold, New Oxford, and Leicester sheep, of 
the long-wooled variety, are also highly esteemed, in 
the same capacity as the Southdowns. 

They are large ; not so compactly built as the South- 
downs ; producing a heavy fleece of long wool, mostly 
used for combing, and making into worsted stuffs. 
They are scarcely so hardy, either, as the Southdowns, 
nor are they so prolific. Still, they have many excel- 
lent qualities ; and although their mutton has not the 
fine grain, nor delicacy, of the other, it is of enormous 
weight, when well fattened, and a most profitable 
carcass. It has sometimes reached a weight of two 
hundred pounds, when dressed. They are gentle, and 
quiet in their habits ; white in the face and legs ; and 
show a fine and stately contrast to the Southdowns, in 
their increased size, and breadth of figure. They re- 
quire, also, a somewhat richer pasture ; but will thrive 
on any good soil, yielding sweet grasses. 

That the keeping of choice breeds of animals, and 
the cultivation of a high taste for them, is no vulgat 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 3i>o 

matter, with even the most exalted intellects, and of 
men occupying the most honorable stations in the state, 
and in society ; and that they concern the retired gen- 
tleman, as well as the practical farmer, it is only neces- 
sary to refer to the many prominent examples in Great 
Britain, and our own country, within the last fifty 
years. 

The most distinguished noblemen of England, and 
Scotland, have long bred the finest of cattle, and em- 
bellished their home parks with them. The late Earl 
Spencer, one of the great patrons of agricultural im- 
provement in England, at his death owned a herd of 
two hundred of the highest bred short-horns, which he 
kept on his home farm, at Wiseton. The Dukes of 
Bedford, for the last century and a half, have made 
extraordinary exertions to improve their several breeds 
of cattle. The late Earl of Leicester, better known, 
perhaps, as Mr. Coke, of Holkham, and the most cele- 
brated farmer of his time, has been long identified 
with his large and select herds of Devons, and his 
flocks of Southdowns. The Duke of Richmond has 
his great park at Goodwood stocked with the finest 
Southdowns, Short-horns, and Devons. Prince Albert, 
even, has caught the infection of such liberal and use- 
ful example, and the royal park at Windsor is tenanted 
with the finest farm stock, of many kinds ; and he is 
a constant competitor at the great Smithfield cattle 
shows, annually held in London. Besides these, hun- 
dreds of the nobility, and wealthy country gentlemen 
of Great Britain, every year compete with the intelli- 
gent farmers, in their exhibitions of cattle, at the 



354 BUBAL ABCHITECTUEE. 

royal and provincial shows, in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. 

In the United States, Washington was a great pro- 
moter of improvement in farm stock, and introduced 
on to his broad estate, at Mount Yernon, many foreign 
animals, which he had sent out to him at great expense ; 
and it was his pride to show his numerous and distin- 
guished guests, his horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. 
Henry Clay, of Kentucky, was among the first pro- 
moters of the improvement of domestic animals in the 
fertile region, of which his own favorite Ashland is the 
center ; and to his continued efforts in the breeding of 
the finest short-horns, and mules, is the state of Ken- 
tucky greatly indebted for its reputation in these de- 
scriptions of stock. Daniel Webster has introduced 
on to his estate, at Marshfield, the finest cattle, and 
sheep suited to its soil and climate, and takes much 
pride in showing their good qualities. Indeed, we 
have never heard either of these two last remarkable 
men more eloquent, than when discoursing of their 
cattle, and of their pleasure in ranging over their pas- 
tures,, and examining their herds and flocks. They 
have both been importers of stock, and liberal in their 
dissemination among their agricultural friends and 
neighbors. Public-spirited, patriotic men, in almost 
every one of our states, have either imported from 
Europe, or drawn from a distance in their own conn 
try, choice animals, to stock their own estates, and 
bred them for the improvement of their several neigh- 
borhoods. Merchants, and generous men of other pro- 
fessions, have shown great liberality, and the finest 



RURAL ARCmTECTUKE. 355 

taste, in importing, rearing, and distributing over the 
country the best breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, and 
pigs. Their own beautiful home grounds are embel- 
lished with them, in a style that all the dumb stat- 
uary in existence can not equal in interest models 
of grace, and beauty, and utility, which are in vain 
sought among the sculpture, or paintings of ancient 
time. And many a plain and unpretending farmer of 
our country, emulating such laudable examples, now 
shows in his luxuriant pastures, and well-filled barns 
and stables, the choicest specimens of imported stock ; 
and their prizes, won at the cattle shows, are the laud- 
able pride of themselves, and their families. 

Nor is this laudable taste, confined to men alone. 
Females of the highest worth, and domestic example, 
both .abroad and at home, cultivate a love for such 
objects, and take much interest in the welfare of their 
farm stock. "We were at the annual state cattle show, 
in one of our large states, but a short time since, and 
in loitering about the cattle quarter of the grounds, 
met a lady of our acquaintance, with a party of her 
female friends, on a tour of inspection among the beau- 
tiful short-horns, and Devons, and the select varieties 
of sheep. She was the daughter of a distinguished 
statesman, who was also a large farmer, and a patron 
of great liberality, in the promotion of fine stock in his 
own state. She was bred upon the farm, and, to rare 
accomplishments in education, was possessed of a deep 
love for all rural objects ; and in the stock of the farm 
she took a peculiar interest. Her husband was an 
extensive fanner, and a noted breeder of fine animals. 



856 RURAL AECJITTECTTJKE. 

She had her own farm, too, and cattle upon it, equally 
as choice as his, in her own right ; and they were both 
competitors at the annual exhibitions. Introduced to 
her friends, at her request, we accompanied them in 
their round of inspection. There were the beautiful 
cows, and the younger cattle, and the sheep all 
noticed, criticised, and remarked upon ; and with a 
judgment, too, in their various properties, which con- 
vinced us of her sound knowledge of their physiology, 
and good qualities, which she explained to her asso- 
ciates with all the familiarity that she would a tam- 
bouring frame, or a piece of embroidery. There was 
no squeamish fastidiousness ; no affectation of prudery, 
in this j but all natural as the pure flow of admiration 
in a well-bred lady could be. At her most comfort- 
able, and hospitable residence, afterward, she showed 
us, with pride, the several cups, and other articles of 
plate, which her family had won as prizes, at the agri- 
cultural exhibitions; and which she intended to pre- 
serve, as heir-looms to her children. This is not a 
solitary example ; yet, a too rare one, among our fair 
countrywomen. Such a spirit is contagious, and we 
witness with real satisfaction, their growing taste in 
such laudable sources of enjoyment : contrary to the 
parvenue affectation of a vast many otherwise sensible 
and accomplished females of our cities and towns 
comprising even the wives and daughters of farmers, 
too who can saunter among the not over select, and 
equivocal representations, among the paintings and 
statuary of our public galleries ; and descant with en- 
tire freedom, on the various attitudes, and artistical 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 357 

merits of the works before them ; or gaze with appa- 
rent admiration upon the brazen pirouettes of a public 
danci.ig girl, amid all the equivoque of a crowded 
theater ; and yet, whose delicacy is shocked at the ex- 
hibitions of a cattle show ! Such females as we have 
noticed, can admire the living, moving beauty of ani- 
mal life, with the natural and easy grace of purity 
itself, and without the slightest suspicion of a stain of 
vulgarity. From the bottom of our heart, we trust 
that a reformation is at work among our American 
women, in the promotion of a taste, and not only a 
taste, but a genuine love of things connected with coun- 
try life. It was not so, with the mothers, and the 
wives, of the stern and earnest men, who laid the 
foundations of their country's freedom and greatness 
They were women of soul, character, and stamina; 
who grappled with the realities of life, in their labors ; 
and enjoyed its pleasures with truth and honesty. This 
over-nice, mincing delicacy, and sentimentality, in 
which their grand-daughters indulge, is but the off- 
throw of the boarding-school, the novelist, and the 
prude mere "leather and prunella." Such remarks 
may be thought to lie beyond the line of our immediate 
labor. But in the discussion of the collateral subjects 
which have a bearing upon country life and residence, 
we incline to make a clean breast of it, and drop such 
incidental remark as may tend to promote the enjoy- 
ment, as well as instruction, of those whose sphere of 
action, and whose choice in life is amid the pure atmos- 
phere, and the pure pleasures of the country. 



358 BtTRAL ABCHITEOTtTBB 



WATEK-FOWLS. 



If a stream flow through the grounds, in the vicinity 
of the house ; or a pond, or a small lake be near, a 
few varieties of choice water-fowls may be kept, adding 
much to the interest and amusement of the family. 
Many of the English nobility, and gentry, keep swans 
for such purpose. They are esteemed a bird of much 
grace and beauty, although silent, and of shy, unsocial 
habits, and not prolific in the production of their young. 
For such purposes as they are kept in England, the 
great African goose, resembling the China, but nearly 
double in size, is a preferable substitute in this country. 
It is a more beautiful bird in its plumage ; equally 
graceful in the water ; social, and gentle in its habits ; 
breeding with facility, and agreeable in its voice, par- 
ticularly at a little distance. The African goose will 
attain a weight of twenty to twenty-five pounds. Its 
body is finely formed, heavily feathered, and its flesh 
is of delicate flavor. The top of the head, and the 
back of its neck, which is long, high, and beautifully 
arched, is a dark brown ; its bill black, with a high 
protuberance, or knob, at its junction with the head ; a 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 359 

dark hazel eye, with a golden ring around it; the 
tinder part of the head and neck, a soft ash- color ; and 
a heavy dewlap at the throat. Its legs and feet are 
orange-colored ; and its belly white. Taken altogether, 
a noble and majestic bird. 




CHINA GOOSE. 



The small brown China goose is another variety 
which may be introduced. She is nearly the color of 
the African, but darker ; has the same black bill, and 
high protuberance on it, but without the dewlap under 
the throat ; and has black legs and feet. She is only 
half the size of the other ; is a more prolific layer, 
frequently laying three or four clutches of eggs in a 
year ; has the same character of voice ; an equally 
high, arched neck, and is quite as graceful in the water. 
The neck of the goose in the cut should be one-third 
longer, to be an accurate likeness. 



360 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The White China is another variety, in size and shape 
like the last, but perfectly white, with an orange col- 
ored bill and legs. Indeed, no swan can be more 
beautiful than this, which is of the same pure, clean 
plumage, and, in its habits and docility, equally a 
favorite with the others we have described. 

The Bremen goose is still another variety, of about 
the same size as the African, but in shape and appear- 
ance, not unlike the common goose, except in color, 
which is pure white. Young geese of this breed, at 
nine months old, frequently weigh twenty pounds, 
alive. We have had them of that weight, and for the 
table, none can be finer. They are equally prolific as 
the common goose, but, as a thing of ornament, are far 
behind the African and the China. Still, they are a 
stately bird, and an acquisition to any grounds where 
water-fowls are a subject of interest, convenience, or 
profit. 

All these birds are more domestic, if possible, than 
the common goose, and we have found them less 
troublesome, not inclined to wander abroad, and, in 
all the qualities of such a bird, far more agreeable. 
We have long kept them, and without their presence, 
should consider our grounds as incomplete, in one ot 
the most attractive features of animated life. 

It is too much a fault of our farming population, that 
they do not pay sufficient attention to many little things 
which would render their homes more interesting, both 
to themselves, if they would only think so, and to their 
families, most certainly. If parents have no taste 
for such objects as we have recommended, or even 



RUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 3C1 

others more common, they should encourage their chil 
dren in the love of them, and furnish them for their 
amusement. The very soul of a farmer's home is to 
cluster every thing about it which shall make it attract- 
ive, and speak out the character of the country, and of 
his occupation, in its full extent. Herds and flocks upon 
the farm are a matter of course ; and so are the horses, 
and the pigs. But there are other things, quite as in- 
dicative of household abundance, and domestic enjoy- 
ment. The pigeons, and the poultry of all kinds, and 
perhaps the rabbit warren, which are chiefly in charge 
of the good housewife, and her daughters, and the 
younger boys, show out the domestic feeling and be- 
nevolence of character in the family, not to be mis- 
taken. It is a sign of enjoyment, of domestic content- 
ment, and of mental cultivation, even, that will lead to 
something higher, and more valuable in after life ; and 
it is in such light that it becomes an absolute duty of 
the farmer who seeks the improvement and education 
of his children, to provide them with all these little 
objects, to engage their leisure hours and promote their- 
happiness. How different a h^me like this from one 
which is, really, not a home where no attention ig 
paid to such minor attractions ; where a few starve- 
ling things, by way of geese, perhaps, picked half a 
dozen times a year, to within an inch of their Ifves, 
mope about the dirty premises, making their nightly 
sittings in the door yard, if the house has one ; a stray 
turkey, or two, running, from fear of the untutored 
dogs, into the nearest wood, in the spring, to make 
their rude nests, and bring out half a clutch of y oung, 



362 BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 

and creeping about the fields through the summer with 
a chicken or two, which the foxes, or other vermin, 
have spared, and -then dogged down in the winter, to 
provide a half got-up Christmas-dinner ; and the hens 
about the open buildings all the year, committing their 
nuisances in every possible way ! There need be no 
surer indication than this, of the utter hopelessness of 
progress for good, in such a family. 



A WOED ABOUT DOGS. 

"We always loved a dog; and it almost broke our 
little heart, when but a trudging schoolboy, in our first 
jacket-and-trowsers, our kind mother made us take back 
the young puppy that had hardly got its eyes open, 
which we one day brought home, to be kept until it 
was fit to be taken from its natural nurse. "We are 
now among the boys, John, Tom, and Harry ; and in- 
tend to give them the benefit of our own experience in 
this^line, as well as to say a few words to the elder 
brothers, and fathers, even, if they do not turn up 
their noses in contempt of our instruction, on a subject 
so much beneath their notice. 

"We say that we love dogs : not all dogs, however. 
But we love some clogs of the right breeds. There 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 363 

is probably no other civilized country so 'dog-ridden as 
this, both in 

" Mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound, 
And curs of low degree." 

Goldsmith, kind man that he was, must have been a 
capital judge of dogs, like many other poetical gentle- 
men. Still, other men than poets are sometimes good 
judges, and great lovers of dogs ; but the mass of peo- 
ple are quite as well satisfied with one kind of dog as 
with another, so that it be a dog ; and they too often 
indulge in their companionship, much to the annoy- 
ance of good neighborhood, good morals, and, indeed, 
of propriety, thrift, and common justice. Of all these 
we have nothing to say here, at least. Ours is a 
"free country" for dogs, if for nothing else. Nor 
shall we discuss the various qualities, or the different 
breeds of dogs for sporting purposes. We never go 
out shooting ; nor do we take a hunt having no taste 
that way. Perhaps in this we are to be pitied ; but 
we are content as it is. Therefore we shall let the 
hounds, and pointers, and setters, the springers, and 
the land and the water spaniels, all alone. The mas- 
tiffs, and the bull dogs, too, we shall leave to those who 
like them. The poodle, and the little lap-dog of other 
kinds, also, we shall turn over to the kindness of those 
who we are sorry for them, in having nothing better 
to interest themselves about take a pleasure in keep- 
ing and tending them. 

We want to mix in a little usefulness, as well as 
amusement, in the way of a dog ; and after a whole 
life, thus far, of dog companionship, and the trial of 



RUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

pretty much fevery tiling in the line of a dog frcin 
the great Newfoundland, of a hundred pounds weight, 
down to the squeaking little whiffet, of six we have, 
for many years past, settled down into the practical 
belief that the small ratting terrier is the only one, 
except the shepherd dog, we care to keep ; and of these, 
chiefly, we shall speak. 

There are many varieties of the Terrier. Some are 
large, weighing forty or fifty pounds, rough-haired, and 
savage looking. There is the bull-terrier, of less size, 
not a kindly, well-disposed creature to strangers ; but 
irrascibly inclined, and unamiable in his deportment ; 
still useful as a watch-dog, and a determined enemy to 
all vermin, whatever. Then, again, are the small rat- 
terriers, as they are termed, weighing from a dozen to 
twenty pounds ; some with rough, long, wiry hair ; a 
fierce, whiskered muzzle ; of prodigious strength for 
their size ; wonderful instinct and sagacity ; kind in 
temper; and possessing valuable qualities, bating a 
lack of beauty in appearance. . They are of all colors, 
but are generally uniform in their color, whatever it 
be. Another kind, still, is the smooth terrier, of the 
same sizes as the last ; a very pretty dog indeed ; with 
a kinder disposition to mankind ; yet equally destruct- 
ive to vermin, and watchful to the premises which they 
inhabit, or of whatever else is put under their charge. 
The fidelity of the terrier to his master is wonderful ; 
equal, if not superior to any other dog whatever. In 
courage and perseverance, in hardihood, and feats of 
daring, he has hardly an equal ; and in general useful 
ness, no dog can compare with him. 



BUBAL ABCHITECTURE. 366 




THE SMOOTH TERRIER 



Sir "Walter Scott, who was a great friend to dogs, as 
well as a nice and critical judge of their qualities, used 
to tell this story : When a young man, first attend- 
ing, as an advocate, the Jedburgh assizes, a notorious 
burglar engaged Sir "Walter to defend him on his trial 
for housebreaking in the neighborhood. The case was 
a hard one ; the proof direct and conclusive ; and no 
ingenuity of the defence could avoid the conviction ot 
the culprit. The matter was settled beyond redemp- 
tion ; and before he left for his imprisonment, or trans- 
portation, the thief requested Sir "Walter to come into 
his cell. On meeting, the fellow frankly told his coun- 
sel that he felt very grateful to him for his efforts to 
clear him ; that he had done the best he could ; but 
the proof was too palpable against him. He would 
gladly reward Sir "Walter for his services ; but he had 



866 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

no money, and could only give him a piece of advice, 
which might, perhaps, be serviceable hereafter. Sir 
"Walter heard him, no doubt, with some regret at losing 
his fee ; but concluding to hear what he had to say. 
" You are a housekeeper, Mr. Scott. For security to 
your doors, use nothing but a common lock if rusty 
and old, no matter ; they are quite as hard to pick as 
any others. (Neither Chubbs' nor Hobbs' non-pickdble 
locks were then invented.) Then provide yourself with 
a small rat terrier, and keep him in your house at night. 
There is no safety in a mastiff, or bull-dog, or in a 
large dog of any breed. They can always be appeased 
and quieted, and burglars understand them ; but a ter- 
rier can neither be terrified nor silenced ; nor do we 
attempt to break in where one is known to be kept." 
Sir "Walter heeded the advice, and, in his housekeeping 
experience, afterward, confirmed the good qualities of 
the terrier, as related to him by the burglar. He also 
commemorated the conversation by the following not 
exceedingly poetical couplet : 

" A terrier dog and a rusty key, 
Was Walter Scott's first Jedburgh fee." 

The terrier has a perfect, thorough, unappeasable 
instinct for, and hatred to all kinds of vermin. He 
takqs to rats and mice as naturally as a cat. He will 
scent out their haunts and burrows. He will lie for 
hours by their places of passage, and point them with 
the sagacity of a pointer at a bird. He is as quick as 
lightning, in pouncing upon them, when in sig'ut, and 
rarely misses them when he springs. A single bite 



EUEAL ARCHITECTURE. 3C7 

settles the matter; and where there are several rats 
found together, a dog will frequently dispatch half a 
dozen of them, before they can get twenty feet from 
him. A dog of our own has killed that number, before 
they could get across the stable floor. In the grain 
field, with the harvesters, a terrier will catch hundreds 
of field-mice in a day ; or, in the hay field, he is 
equally destructive. With a woodchuck, a raccoon, or 
anything of their size even a skunk, which many 
dogs avoid he engages, with the same readiness that 
he will a rat. The night is no bar to his vigils. He 
has the sight of an owl, in the dark. Minks, and 
weasels, are his aversion, as much as other vermin. 
He will follow the first into the water, till he exhausts 
him with diving, and overtakes him in swimming. 
He is a hunter, too. He will tree a sqirrel, or a rac- 
coon, as readily as the best of sporting dogs. He will 
catch, and hold a pig, or anything not too large or 
heavy for him. He will lie down on your garment, 
and watch it for hours ; or by anything else left in his 
charge. He will play with the children, and share 
their sports as joyfully as a dumb creature can do ; 
and nothing can be more affectionate, kind, and gen- 
tle among them. He is cleanly, honest, and seldom 
addicted to tricks of any kind. 

We prefer the high-bred, smooth, English terrier, to 
any other variety. They are rather more gentle in 
temper, and very much handsomer in appearance, than 
the rough-haired kind ; but perlmps no better in their 
useful qualities. We have kept them for years; we 
t^m now and no reasonable inducement would 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

let us part with them. A year or two ago, having 
accidentally lost our farm terrier, and nothing remain- 
ing on the place but our shepherd dog, the buildings 
soon swarmed with rats. They were in, and about 
everything. During the winter, the men who tended 
the horses, and cattle, at their nightly rounds of inspec- 
tion, before going to bed, would kill, with their clubs, 
three or four, in the barns and stables, every evening. 
But still the rats increased, and they became unen- 
durable. They got into the grain-mows, where they 
burrowed, and brought forth with a fecundity second 
only to the frogs of Egypt. They gnawed into the 
granaries. They dug into the dairy. They entered 
the meat barrels. They carried off the eggs from the 
hen-nests. They stole away, and devoured, the young 
ducks, and chickens. They literally came into the 
"kneading troughs" of the kitchen. Oh! the rats 
were intolerable ! Traps were no use. Arsenic was 
innocuous they would n't touch it. Opportunity 
favored us, and we got two high-bred, smooth, English 
terriers a dog, and a slut. Then commenced such a 
slaughter as we seldom see. The rats had got bold. 
The dogs caught them daily by dozens, as they came 
out from their haunts, fearless of evil, as before. As 
they grew more shy, their holes were watched, and 
every morning dead rats were found about the prem- 
ises. The dogs, during the day, pointed out their 
holes. Planks were removed, nests were found, and 
the rats, young and old, killed, instanter. Hundreds 
on hundreds were slaughtered, in the first few weeks ; 
and in a short time, the place was mostly rid of them, 



BUBAL ARCHITECTURE. 3G9 

until enough only are left to keep the dogs "in play," 
and to show that in spite of all precaution, they will 
harbor wherever there is a thing to eat, and a possible 
place of covert for them to burrow. 

To have the terrier in full perfection, it is important 
that the breed be pure. TVe are so prone to mix up 
everything we get, in this country, that it is sometimes 
difficult to get anything exactly as it should be ; but a 
little care will provide us, in this particular. He 
should be properly trained, too, when young. That is, 
to mind what is said to him. His intelligence will be 
equal to all your wants in the dog-line ; but he should 
not be fooled with. His instincts are sure. And, 
with a good education, the terrier will prove all you 
need in a farm, and a watch-dog. We speak from 
long experience, and observation. 

The shepherd dog is another useful almost indis- 
pensable creature, on the sheep, or dairy farm. 
This cut is an accurate representation of the finest of 
the breed. To the flock-master, he saves a world of 
labor, in driving and gathering the flocks together, or 
from one field, or place, to another. To the sheep- 
drover, also, he is worth a man, at least ; and in many 
cases, can do with a flock what a man can not do. But 
for this labor, he requires training, and a strict, thor- 
ough education, by those who know how to do it. He 
is a peaceable, quiet creature ; good for little else than 
driving, and on a stock farm will save fifty times his 
cost and keeping, every year. He is a reasonably 
good watch-dog, also ; but he has neither the instinct, 
nor sagacity of the terrier, in that duty. To keep him 



370 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 




THE SHEPHERD DGtt. 



in his best estate, for his own peculiar work, he should 
not be troubled with other labors, as it distracts his 
attention from his peculiar duties. "We had a remark- 
ably good dog, of this kind, a few years since. He 
was worth the services of a stout boy, in bringing up 
the cattle, and sheep, until an idle boy or two, in the 
neighborhood, decoyed him out in " cooning, " a few 
nights during one autumn in which he proved a 
most capital hunter ; and after that, he became worth- 
less, as a cattle dog. He was always rummaging around 
among the trees, barking at birds, squirrels, or any 
live thing that he could find ; and no man could coax 



EURAL ARCHITECTURE. 371 

him back to the dull routine of his duty. A shepherd 
dog should never go a-hunting. 

We would not be understood as condemning every- 
thing else, excepting the dogs we have named, for farm 
use. The Newfoundland, and the mastiff, are enor- 
mously large dogs, and possessed of some noble quali- 
ties. They have performed feats of sagacity and fidel- 
ity which have attracted universal admiration; but, 
three to one, if you have them on your farm, they will 
kill every sheep upon it ; and their watchfulness is no 
greater than that of the shepherd dog, or the terrier. 
We have spoken of such as we have entire confidence 
in, and such as we consider the best for useful service. 
There are some kinds of cur dog that are useful. They 
are of no breed at all, to be sure ; but have, now and 
then, good qualities ; and when nothing better can be 
got, they will do for a make-shift. But as a rule, we 
would be equally particular in the breed of our dog, 
as we would in the breed of our cattle, or sheep. 
There are altogether too many dogs kept, in the coun- 
try, and most usually by a class of people who have 
no need of them, and which prove only a nuisance to 
the neighborhood, and a destruction to the goods of 
others. Thousands of useful sheep are annually de- 
stroyed by them ; and in some regions of the country, 
they can not be kept, by reason of their destruction by 
worthless dogs, which are owned by the disorderly 
people about them. In a western state, some time 
ago, in conversing with a large farmer, who had a 
flock of perhaps a hundred sheep running in one of 
his pastures, and who also kept a dozen hounds, for 



372 RUKAL AliCIIITEOTUBK. 



hunting, we asked him whether the dogs did not kill 
his sheep ? " To be sure they do." was his reply , 
"but the dogs are worth more than the sheep, for they 
give us great sport in hunting deer, and foxes ; and 
tbe sheep only give us a little mutton, now and then, 
and some wool for the women to make into stockings !" 
This is a mere matter of taste, thought we, and the 
conversation on that subject dropped. Yet, this man 
had a thousand acres of the richest land in the world ; 
raised three or four hundred acres of corn, a year ; fed 
off a hundred head of cattle, annually ; and sold three 
hundred hogs every year, for slaughtering ! 



FISH-PONDS. 

Wherever water in sufficient, quantity can be intro- 
duced by a side-cut from a stream, by damming the 
stream itself or by drawing it from a large spring, and 
the face of the ground in the vicinity of the house 
can afford a suitable place, either by inclosing a natural 
hollow or ravine by a dam, or by excavation, a fish- 
pond is well worthy the attention of a country resident, 
even if he be but a small farmer. As an ornamental 
feature of the place, it is of the most agreeable charac- 
ter ; its utility will be unquestioned. The size of the 
pond is immaterial, beyond half an acre in area less it 
jhould not be and if it embrace even twenty, thirty, 
or fifty acres, provided the proprietor can afford to de- 



RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 373 

vote so much land to that object, it will be all the bet- 
ter for the fish, both in numbers and in quality. 

The depth of water may vary no matter how deep 
but the deepest part should not be less than ten feet, 
that there may be a cool retreat for the fish in summer, 
and a warm resting-place in winter ; and if a depth to 
that extent can be made close to the margin on a part 
of the boundary, it will be all the better, as the fish 
may then enjoy the overhanging shade of the bank. 
The shore should be undulating if possible ; irregular 
in its outline, and a part of it shaded by trees and 
shrubbery, as fish love shade as well as sunshine. A 
part of the shore should be shallow, and shelve off 
gradually into the deep water, and if partially grown 
up with rushes, or lying on a smooth, clean sand or 
gravel, it will accommodate the different varieties of fish 
to bed and spawn upon ; some preferring the shady and 
muddy bottom of the rush beds, and others the pebbly, 
clear and sunny floor of the pond for that object. The 
temperature of the water will vary, according to its 
depth and" proximity to the shore, from ten to twenty 
degrees at any given time, thus affording accommodation 
to different varieties of the fish which may inhabit it 
in the various conditions of breeding, growth, and 
feeding, as they are enabled to treat themselves in their 
natural haunts in wild waters. 

According to the clearness, temperature, and purity 
of the water, will depend the selection of the kinds of 
fish which are to inhabit it. If the soil forming the 
bed of the pond be light, and clean, and stony, and the 
water be let in from a spring, or a spring brook of a 
low temperature, the Speckled Trout, and the cold- 
water fishes which are found in the same natural waters 
with them, may be introduced. Yet for trout, the 



374 EUKAL ARCHITECTURE. 

water should have some current. They are a playful 
and active fish, and nothing delights them more than 
the bubbling water of a spring, or the rapid shooting 
of a stream over a rugged bed. Still in cool and clear 
water, a pond will satisfy them if the circulation be 
such as to avoid stagnation. The trout, too, love a deep 
hole, under a shaded bank, by the side of a projecting 
rock, or beneath the roots of a huge tree. There the 
larger ones love to gather, and from such haunts are 
the finest specimens to be drawn with the hook. They 
love to spawn in clear eddies, in sunny spots, over a 
stony or sandy bed, where their young fry can feed upon 
the animalculi and insects which play about the margin. 

The Yellow Perch, a beautiful and delicious fish, 
may also be introduced into clear and cool water. It 
is quick and active in its movements, bites readily at 
the hook, and is exceedingly prolific. In the spring 
and summer season it loves to lie among rushes on 
the margin of a gently-flowing stream or a still pond, 
when it spawns and breeds. The perch will thrive in 
water too warm and sluggish for the trout, but like the 
trout, it loves to retreat and hide itself under a bank in 
the deep shadow during the day. 

If the pond be sufficiently extensive, the Bass, in its 
varieties may be introduced ; but as they are a much 
larger fish than the trout or the perch, they require a 
greater depth of water and a wider range for their 
food. The bass is an excellent table fish, and prolific in 
the propagation of its kind. 

The Pike might also be added, in clear and cool 
waters. But it is a voracious, heartless wretch prey- 
ing upon every other fish of lesser size within its reach, 
and by its rapid movements enabled to dart and seize 
upon everything inhabiting the same waters from which 



RTTRAL ARCHITECTURE. 375 

ft cannot escape. A single pike or two, introduced into 
a close pond, has been known within a few months to 
entirely depopulate it of all other sizeable fish. Al- 
though, in its natural haunts, a fish of excellent quality 
of flesh, they should hardly be introduced into the do- 
mestic pond. 

The Yellow Carp (the gold fish) is a beautiful crea- 
ture to throw into the pond. They are not a fish of 
prey upon its fellows, but live chiefly on insects and 
worms. They may be domesticated like the perch, 
and fed from the hand, and called by a bell to their ac- 
customed feeding places in the pond. When turned 
out at large, their progeny will change into silver and 
brown varieties of color, while some of them will re- 
tain the deep orange of the originals. On the whole 
they are a beautiful and interesting fish, and should 
always be introduced into the pond. 

In dark waters, resting on an oozy or muddy bot- 
tom, the European Carp is a capital and appropriate 
fish for propagation. It feeds like the yellow carp, 
chiefly on water-worms, and has a " sucker" mouth, 
and grows to the weight of five, to ten or twelve pounds. 

The Mullet is also a good fish and of equal size to 
the carp, and when the waters are cold, of the finest 
flavor for the table. In warm weather, its flesh is apt 
to become soft and flavorless. The mullet also takes 
its food by suction. It is a fish of exceeding beauty, 
having large scales of most brilliant varying shades of 
silver, purple and yellow, which give it an uncommon 
richness in appearance. These " sucker-mouthed" fish 
do not take the hook like the trout, the perch, or the 
bass, but may be caught by the net, or spear, as they 
lie in the shallow water near the shore, either in the 
day-time, or by torch-light at night. 



376 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The Silver Eel may also be put into the muddy bot- 
tom pond, but when confined, they make sad havoc 
with the other fish, as well as with young ducks or 
goslings, if they are permitted to swim in it. Although 
a migratory fish, they will remain in confined waters ; 
but they have too many disagreeable qualities in their 
social relations to be the companions of the better fish 
that we have named. 

In all waters where edible fish are kept, smaller 
varieties should be introduced, as the Chub, the Sun 
Fish or Roach, the Dace, the Shiner, the Smelt, and 
the Minnow ; they are prolific in breeding, and furnish 
abundant food for the Bass, the Trout, and the Perch, 
which fatten upon them. The larger of these yield 
the finest of sport to the children, with their pin hooks 
and thread lines if they have no better. They are a 
nice pan fish also, bating the multitude of their little 
bones ; but fried to a crisp, they are seldom in the way. 
In stocking a new pond, a sufficient variety of both 
the smaller and the larger kinds should be introduced, 
so that a fair trial may be had with each, and such as 
the waters best suit will ultimately become the chief 
tenants of the domain ; but if Pike and Eels be intro- 
duced, let them by all means be put in together, and 
alone, to feed upon the frogs and lizards, or each other 
as chance and might may govern. As a rule however, 
the small fry should have possession of the waters for 
at least one year in advance, that they may multiply to 
a sufficient extent to supply partial food to the larger 
ones ; and as they spawn, and keep in the shallowest 
waters, they will thus propagate in sufficient abundance 
to prevent a future scarcity when their more voracious 
fellow-lodgers are introduced. 

In ponds of sufficient extent, fish may be kept and 



KTTEA.L ARCHITECTURE. 377 

propagated to profit, aside from supplying the family 
with so great a luxury in food as fresh fish are usually 
esteemed. They may be fed with the offal meats of 
the slaughter-house or the farm, or with balls of flour 
or meal, boiled or baked. They may be called to a 
particular point of the pond to feed at regular hours, if 
they become accustomed to it. Such extra feeding will 
give them an earlier and increased growth, and having 
less need to prey upon the smaller fish, the stock of 
course will be largely increased. 

The feeding and care of fish will also be a source of 
pleasure and amusement to the members of the family ; 
and while away many an hour of leisure or idleness 
that might otherwise tempt away the younger ones to 
resorts of dissipation or vice. In short, aside from its 
useful objects, we would have the fish-pond, as we 
would the dove-cote or the rabbitry, to give pleasure 
and variety to the farm, and to cluster around it all the 
endearments with which life in the country should be 
surrounded. 

To give the fish-pond its most ornamental features as 
an object of interest or beauty, it should be partially 
clothed with trees and shrubs. In trees .we would se- 
lect the soft or water maples, the willows, the water, 
or black ash, the birch, and the lowland poplar. In 
the way of shrubbery, the black alder, the wild 
rose, and the osier willow, make a beautiful fringe to a 
water margin. A certain expression of wildness should 
be given to the pond, where it is of any size, and if it 
have some hidden nooks and recesses difficult to ap- 
proach from the shore, it will be all the better. Fish 
love seclusion. Indeed, a pond haunted on every side 
by the foot of man, or the tread of animals, is but ac 
indifferent spot for their welfare, and the more it can 



378 RURAL ARCHITECTURE. 

resemble, in outward appearance and keeping, the wild 
water of the river, the lake, or the natural pond, the 
more congenial will it be to the tastes and habits of the 
fish, and of course more profitable to the proprietor. 

It is scarcely necessary to add that the pond should 
have an outlet of sufficient capacity to let off its sur- 
plus water, and be thoroughly secured against accident 
in bursting away, as an occurrence of this kind might 
in a few hours, destroy the labor and solicitude of 
years. 






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